moral_psychology   301

« earlier    

The joy of ruling: an experimental investigation on collective giving | SpringerLink
"We analyse team dictator games with different voting mechanisms in the laboratory. Individuals vote to select a donation for all group members. Standard Bayesian analysis makes the same prediction for all three mechanisms: participants should cast the same vote regardless of the voting mechanism used to determine the common donation level. Our experimental results show that subjects fail to choose the same vote. We show that their behaviour is consistent with a joy of ruling: individuals get an extra utility when they determine the voting outcome."
to:NB  experimental_psychology  moral_psychology 
23 days ago by cshalizi
Demonising The Other: The Criminalisation of Morality, Whitehead
"Throughout history, societies have established “others”—groups, often defined through differences of culture, race, gender, or class, that have been demonized by the majority. In this book, Philip Whitehead challenges the idea that such demonization is an inevitable fact of life. He lays out the historical criminalization of the other and looks closely at modern attempts to prevent it through changes to criminal justice systems, ultimately questioning whether such approaches can be effective at altering the conditions of existence that are responsible for the creation of the other."
to:NB  books:noted  moral_psychology  crime  history_of_morals 
10 weeks ago by cshalizi
McClendon, G.: Envy in Politics (Hardcover and eBook) | Princeton University Press
"How envy, spite, and the pursuit of admiration influence politics
"Why do governments underspend on policies that would make their constituents better off? Why do people participate in contentious politics when they could reap benefits if they were to abstain? In Envy in Politics, Gwyneth McClendon contends that if we want to understand these and other forms of puzzling political behavior, we should pay attention to envy, spite, and the pursuit of admiration--all manifestations of our desire to maintain or enhance our status within groups. Drawing together insights from political philosophy, behavioral economics, psychology, and anthropology, McClendon explores how and under what conditions status motivations influence politics.
"Through surveys, case studies, interviews, and an experiment, McClendon argues that when concerns about in-group status are unmanaged by social conventions or are explicitly primed by elites, status motivations can become drivers of public opinion and political participation. McClendon focuses on the United States and South Africa—two countries that provide tough tests for her arguments while also demonstrating that the arguments apply in different contexts.
"From debates over redistribution to the mobilization of collective action, Envy in Politics presents the first theoretical and empirical investigation of the connection between status motivations and political behavior."

--- While "Envy in Politics" is clearly a much better title than "Concerns about Inter-personal Status in Politics", it seems somewhat prejudicial...
to:NB  books:noted  moral_psychology  political_science 
april 2018 by cshalizi
Action versus Contemplation: Why an Ancient Debate Still Matters, Summit, Vermeule
"“All of humanity’s problems stem from man’s inability to sit quietly in a room alone,” Blaise Pascal wrote in 1654. But then there’s Walt Whitman, in 1856: “Whoever you are, come forth! Or man or woman come forth! / You must not stay sleeping and dallying there in the house.”
"It is truly an ancient debate: Is it better to be active or contemplative? To do or to think? To make an impact, or to understand the world more deeply? Aristotle argued for contemplation as the highest state of human flourishing. But it was through action that his student Alexander the Great conquered the known world. Which should we aim at? Centuries later, this argument underlies a surprising number of the questions we face in contemporary life. Should students study the humanities, or train for a job? Should adults work for money or for meaning? And in tumultuous times, should any of us sit on the sidelines, pondering great books, or throw ourselves into protests and petition drives? 
"With Action versus Contemplation, Jennifer Summit and Blakey Vermeule address the question in a refreshingly unexpected way: by refusing to take sides. Rather, they argue for a rethinking of the very opposition. The active and the contemplative can—and should—be vibrantly alive in each of us, fused rather than sundered. Writing in a personable, accessible style, Summit and Vermeule guide readers through the long history of this debate from Plato to Pixar, drawing compelling connections to the questions and problems of today. Rather than playing one against the other, they argue, we can discover how the two can nourish, invigorate, and give meaning to each other, as they have for the many writers, artists, and thinkers, past and present, whose examples give the book its rich, lively texture of interplay and reference.
"This is not a self-help book. It won’t give you instructions on how to live your life. Instead, it will do something better: it will remind you of the richness of a life that embraces action and contemplation, company and solitude, living in the moment and planning for the future. Which is better? Readers of this book will discover the answer: both."
to:NB  books:noted  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy 
april 2018 by cshalizi
[1801.04346] A Computational Model of Commonsense Moral Decision Making
We introduce a new computational model of moral decision making, drawing on a recent theory of commonsense moral learning via social dynamics. Our model describes moral dilemmas as a utility function that computes trade-offs in values over abstract moral dimensions, which provide interpretable parameter values when implemented in machine-led ethical decision-making. Moreover, characterizing the social structures of individuals and groups as a hierarchical Bayesian model, we show that a useful description of an individual's moral values - as well as a group's shared values - can be inferred from a limited amount of observed data. Finally, we apply and evaluate our approach to data from the Moral Machine, a web application that collects human judgments on moral dilemmas involving autonomous vehicles.

-- Can somebody stop this Bayesian cognition paper production factory?
moral_psychology  bayesian  cognition  joshua.tenenbaum 
march 2018 by rvenkat
Embedding Ethical Principles in Collective Decision Support Systems
The future will see autonomous machines acting in the same environment as humans, in areas as diverse as driving, assistive technology, and health care. Think of self-driving cars, companion robots, and medical diagnosis support systems. We also believe that humans and machines will often need to work together and agree on common decisions. Thus hybrid collective decision making systems will be in great need. In this scenario, both machines and collective decision making systems should follow some form of moral values and ethical principles (appropriate to where they will act but always aligned to humans'), as well as safety constraints. In fact, humans would accept and trust more machines that behave as ethically as other humans in the same environment. Also, these principles would make it easier for machines to determine their actions and explain their behavior in terms understandable by humans. Moreover, often machines and humans will need to make decisions together, either through consensus or by reaching a compromise. This would be facilitated by shared moral values and ethical principles.
moral_psychology  artificial_intelligence  expert_judgment  automation  ethics  engineering  dmce  teaching 
february 2018 by rvenkat
The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles | Science
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) should reduce traffic accidents, but they will sometimes have to choose between two evils, such as running over pedestrians or sacrificing themselves and their passenger to save the pedestrians. Defining the algorithms that will help AVs make these moral decisions is a formidable challenge. We found that participants in six Amazon Mechanical Turk studies approved of utilitarian AVs (that is, AVs that sacrifice their passengers for the greater good) and would like others to buy them, but they would themselves prefer to ride in AVs that protect their passengers at all costs. The study participants disapprove of enforcing utilitarian regulations for AVs and would be less willing to buy such an AV. Accordingly, regulating for utilitarian algorithms may paradoxically increase casualties by postponing the adoption of a safer technology.

--also add Greene's commentary (same issue)
moral_psychology  artificial_intelligence  judgment_decision-making  dmce  teaching 
february 2018 by rvenkat
Collision with Reality: What Depth Psychology Can Tell us About Victimhood Culture - Quillette
-- I would prefer avoiding Jungian psychology and rephrase it differently. Material affluence affords us *more* agency than in the past. So, to give up on the idea of having agency and attribute all agency to the environment is wrong and harmful. The debate is about whether one can definitely claim that individual affordance in present day is more that it ever was. While what if as *critical* scholars say, there was *epistemic injustice* and their oppression was not even known or acknowledged in the past or in the present.
At the end of the day, it is probably about the efficacy of using political concepts in apolitical settings but it is tough if one starts with *everything is political* approach to everything.
cultural_market  cultural_psychology  moral_psychology  social_psychology  contemporary_culture  critique  via:sommers 
december 2017 by rvenkat
Shared Outrage and Erratic Awards: The Psychology of Punitive Damages | SpringerLink
An experimental study of punitive damage awards in personal injury cases was conducted, using jury-eligible respondents. There was substantial consensus on judgments of the outrageousness of a defendant's actions and of the appropriate severity of punishment. Judgments of dollar awards made by individuals and synthetic juries were much more erratic. These results are familiar characteristics of judgments made on unbounded magnitude scales. The degree of harm suffered by the plaintiff and the size of the firm had a pronounced effect on awards. Some judgmental tasks are far easier than others for juries to perform, and reform possibilities should exploit this fact.

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.333.4885&rep=rep1&type=pdf

-- use synthetic jury studies to model public opinion?
judgment_decision-making  empirical_legal_studies  law  dmce  teaching  models_of_behavior  moral_psychology  cass.sunstein 
december 2017 by rvenkat

« earlier    

related tags

?  16thc  17thc  18thc  19thc  2016  2016_presidential_race  20thc  21st_century  21stc  3rd_republic  absolutism  academia  accountability  accounting  action-theory  addison  administrative_state  adverse_selection  aesthetics  affectionate_parody  agency  agents  aging  alt-right  altruism  ancient_greece  ancient_philosophy  anthropology  aristotle  art_criticism  art_history  article  artificial_intelligence  atheism  audio-books  audio  authoritarianism  authority  autobiography  automation  barney.rachel  bayesian  behavioral_economics  berlin_isaiah  bglobe  biblical_exegesis  bibliography  bilingualism  biology  blackburn.simon  blake_william  bolingbroke  book  book_review  book_reviews  books  books:noted  boswell  bowles.samuel  british_history  british_politics  burke  butler  buy  cass.sunstein  cass_sunstein  catholics-france  causal_inference  chapter  character-formation  character  child_development  china  church-and-state  church_history  church_of_england  civic_engagement  civil_rights  civil_society  class_struggles_in_america  cognition  cognitive_bias  cognitive_science  cold_war  collective_cognition  comparative_politics  consciousness  conservatives  constructivism  contagion  contemporary_culture  contracts  cooperation  corruption  cosmology  counter-enlightenment  counter-reformation  courses  court_culture  coveted  craft  crime  crispin.jessa  critical_theory  critique  cultural_cognition  cultural_critique  cultural_evolution  cultural_history  cultural_market  cultural_psychology  culture  daniel_kahneman  debunking  delegation  democracy  democrats  demonstration  desire  determinism  dialogue  diderot  dignity  discourse-political_theory  disenchantment  disgust  dispositions  dmce  donald_trump  downloaded  economic_theory  economics  effective_altruism  egalitarian  elite_culture  embodied_cognition  emergence  emotional_contagion  emotions  empathy  empirical_legal_studies  empiricism  engineering  english_lit  enlightened_absolutism  enlightenment-ongoing  enlightenment  enlightenment_project  epicurean  epistemology-moral  epistemology  equality  erastianism  ethic_of_care  ethics  eudaimonia  european_union  evil  evolution_of_cooperation  evolutionary_psychology  experimental_psychology  expert_judgment  extremism  feminism  field_experiments  fin-de-siècle  firms-organization  folk_psychology  food  for_friends  forgiveness  foundationalism  france  free_will  freedom_of_expression  freedom_of_speech  french_enlightenment  french_intellectuals  french_language  french_lit  french_revolution-impact  funny:geeky  game_theory  gender_studies  genre  german_idealism  german_scholars  gintis.herbert  globalization  god-existence  governance  guilt  hadot  hadot_  hadot_pierre  have_read  hedonistic  hellenism  helmholtz  heuristics  hierarchy  high_church  hillary_clinton  historical_change  historiography-18thc  history_of_ideas  history_of_morals  hobbes  homophily  homosexuality  honnête  horror  human_behavior  human_evolution  human_nature  human_rights  hume-causation  hume-ethics  hume  hypocrisy  i_remain_skeptical  ilsetraut  images-political  imagination  imagined_communities  imago_dei  immigration  in_library  in_nb  in_wishlist  incentives-distortions  incentives  indonesia  inequality  influence  information-asymmetric  innate_ideas  innatism  instapaper  institutions  intellectual_history-distorted  intellectual_history  jean-jacques_rousseau  jesuits  johnson  jonathan_haidt  joshua.tenenbaum  journal  jstor  judgment-aesthetics  judgment-emotions  judgment_decision-making  jurisprudence  justice  kames  kant-aesthetics  kant-ethics  kant  kindle-available  king.stephen  kirk  kith_and_kin  la_rochefoucauld  lange_fa  language  late_antiquity  latitudinarian  law  lecture  legal_positivism  legal_realism  legal_system  legal_theory  liberalism  liberals  libertine_erudite  lit_crit  literary_criticism  literary_history  lives_of_the_artists  lives_of_the_scholars  locke-education  locke-essay  locke-religion  locke  louis_xiv  mass_culture  materialism-19thc  medieval_philosophy  meditation  memory  metaphysics  microeconomics  microfoundations  mind-body  mind  models_of_behavior  modernity  monasticism  monotheism  montaigne  moral_economy  moral_hazard  moral_panic  moral_philosophy  moral_realism  moral_responsibility  moral_sentiments  moral_values  morality-christian  morality-conventional  morality-divine_command  morality-nietzche  morality-objective  morality  motivation  nationalism  natural_law  natural_philosophy  natural_religion  naturalism  nature-mastery  nature  neo-kantian  neoplatonism  networked_life  networks  neuroscience  newyorker  nietzsche  normativity  norms-business  norms  novels  nussbaum.martha  nytimes  obligation  op-ed  organizations  papacy  paper  part_played_by_social_labor_in_the_transition_from_ape_to_man  partisanship  partyism  passions  paywall  perception  phenomenology  philip.tetlock  philosophical_anthropology  philosophy  philosophy_as_way_of_life  philosophy_of_mind  philosophy_of_religion  phobia  physics  physiology  plotinus  pluralism  poetry  polarization  policy  political_culture  political_economy  political_philosophy  political_press  political_psychology  political_science  political_sociology  political_spectacle  politico-theology  politics-and-aesthetics  politics-and-religion  politics  polytheism  pope_alexander  post-wwii  pre-wwi  prejudice  principal-agent  propositions  proust  providence  précieuses  psychoanalysis  psychology  public_administration  public_opinion  public_sphere  punishment-altruistic  racism  rational_choice  rationality-bounded  rationality-economics  rationality  re:democratic_cognition  reason-passions  reason  reasons-externalism  reasons-internalism  recognition  religion-established  religion  religious_belief  religious_culture  religious_history  representation-metaphysics  representation  republicans  resistance_theory  responsibility  revelation  review  reviews  rewards-and-punishment  rhetoric  rhetorical_self-fashioning  romanticism  rousseau-self  rousseau  salons  scarcity  scepticism  scottish_enlightenment  scudéry  self-control  self-development  self-knowledge  self-sufficiency  self  seneca  sensibility  sentimentalism  sexuality  shaftesbury  smith  social_construction_of_ignorance  social_epistemology  social_media  social_networks  social_order  social_psychology  social_sciences-post-wwii  socialization  sociology  sociology_of_religion  socrates  spiritual_practices  ssrn  stadial_theories  steven_pinker  stoicism  stratification  sublime  survey  symbols-political  sympathy  taboo-_trade-offs  teaching  technology  teleology  the_atlantic  the_economist  the_nightmare_from_which_we_are_trying_to_awake  theism  theodicy  theology  theory_of_mind  thomas_edsall  thomas_piketty  thought  to:nb  to_be_shot_after_a_fair_trial  to_teach  tolerance  tomasello.michael  torture  transcendence  tribalism  trolling  trust  united_states  united_states_of_america  universalism  university  us_conservative_thought  us_elections  us_politics  veganism  video  violence  virtue  virtue_ethics  virtue_signaling  voltaire  wapo  wealth  wealth_distribution  whig_culture  whigs  wiley  women-intellectuals  women-rights  world_values_survey  wwi 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: