mcgurk   27

A simple shift in US stance led to Turkey’s assault against Syria’s Kurds - Defense Post
Under U.S. Special Envoy to the Coalition Brett McGurk, U.S. officials had communicated to the Turks that American areas in Syria would be defended, according to sources with direct knowledge of the policy. LaCamera appeared unaware that the stance had changed.

Absent written orders and any coherent direction from the White House, Army Lieutenant General James LaCamera, the Coalition commander, turned to the State Department, where a new team led by veteran diplomat James Jeffrey, answerable to the secretary of state, had taken charge of Syria policy.

“My biggest concern now is force protection,” LaCamera said. To do that, he needed to deter Turkey from invading northern Syria, so suggested an option that he thought was in line with U.S. policy: to reinforce three outposts along the Syrian side of the Turkish border as a signal.

The State Department official balked.

“You cannot stop the Turks from coming in by outposts,” the official told LaCamera. “But you can provoke them by outposts.” If the general reinforced the outposts, he said, Turkey “will think that you’re protecting the SDF.”

U.S. forces are authorized to strike non-ISIS forces in self defense, and commanders have used this authorization to protect valuable territory on Syria’s battlefields, including from pro-regime forces near al-Tanf in May 2017 and the Conoco natural gas field from Russian irregular forces near Deir Ezzor in February 2018.

Under McGurk, that stance was leveraged to dissuade Turkey from attacking the SDF, the source said, speaking on the condition of anonymity due to the sensitivity of the diplomatic discussions.

“We said ‘force protection,’ and the Turks never tested it.”

The ostensible plan, according to Nicholas Heras, a fellow at the Center for New American Security, was to lay the groundwork for an eventual tripartite agreement between Russia, Turkey and the U.S., in which Turkish and U.S.-controlled areas of Syria were merged.

“The idea was, if you could work out some sort of synchronized arrangement between the SDF zone and the Turkish zone in Euphrates Shield, using Manbij as a pivot point, you could create one larger NATO zone that can be used to apply pressure and leverage on Assad and Russia,” Heras said.

The policy had been in the works since the spring of 2018, around the time Bolton became National Security Advisor, and was spearheaded by Joel Rayburn, the State Department’s Special Envoy for Syria.

The official seemed confident the Turkish incursion could be controlled through the threat of sanctions. “The Turks have given us general guidelines as to where they want to operate and what their military goals are.”

“As I said, we think they’re all a bad idea. But we have no indication that they – they have not given us any indication that they plan on any escalation further than what they’ve told us.”

To SDC officials, the Americans’ actions felt like a deliberate betrayal. “They never told us that Turkey was not satisfied with the steps,” one senior SDC official said.
Mar15  SDF  State_Department  TrumpAdministration  McGurk  diplomacy  Turkey  PeaceSpring 
november 2019 by elizrael
A “Syrian Democratic Forces” Defector Speaks About the Role of the PKK and America in Syria | Kyle Orton's Blog
“The Arab Coalition’s only duty was to receive weapons”, Silo says. “As a matter of fact, huge quantities of weapons were received. But only light weapons were distributed to the Arabs, Turkomen, and non-Kurdish Syrians.” During the Minbij Operation, the formal commander was Adnan Abu Amjad, head of the “Minbij Military Council”, and it was to him that “all weapons were delivered [on paper]. … But it was theatre.” Arab SDF units have long complained that they were denied access to heavy weapons, and were instead kept away from the frontlines with IS and made to administer PKK rule in Arab-majority territory. “The USA knew about this”, says Silo. “All these games were played so as not to reveal that these weapons were delivered to the PKK.”

A “Minbij Military Council” was created and Turkomen units were announced to be party to it, “but there was nobody”, says Silo. “I even made up the names of the council that seemed to be connected to me. This was done at McGurk’s request.” After IS was pushed out of Minbij, says Silo, McGurk “wanted us to publish a statement saying that the SDF had rescued the city, that the YPG had pulled out of the city, and that the those [SDF elements] remaining in the city were their sons [i.e. locals]. There was no connection to the truth.”

A “Minbij Military Council” was created and Turkomen units were announced to be party to it, “but there was nobody”, says Silo. “I even made up the names of the council that seemed to be connected to me. This was done at McGurk’s request.” After IS was pushed out of Minbij, says Silo, McGurk “wanted us to publish a statement saying that the SDF had rescued the city, that the YPG had pulled out of the city, and that the those [SDF elements] remaining in the city were their sons [i.e. locals]. There was no connection to the truth.”
SDF  PKK  Mar15  leak  defectors  McGurk  Raqqa  DeirEzZor  weapons  obama_administration 
october 2019 by elizrael
Try The McGurk Effect! - Horizon: Is Seeing Believing? - BBC Two
he McGurk effect is a compelling demonstration of how we all use visual speech information. The effect shows that we can't help but integrate visual speech into what we 'hear'.
mcgurk  mind  perception  illusion 
march 2015 by mathieup
Discover Card TV Commercial, 'Frog Protection' - iSpot.tv
McGurk Effect in a Discover Card TV Commercial? // 'Frog Protection' - #psychology #speech
psychology  auditory  mcgurk  speech 
january 2015 by prosaic1
McGurk effect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The McGurk effect is a perceptual phenomenon which demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. It suggests that speech perception is multimodal, that is, that it involves information from more than one sensory modality. The McGurk effect is sometimes called the McGurk-MacDonald effect. It was first described in a paper by Harry McGurk and John MacDonald in 1976.

This effect may be experienced when a video of one phoneme's production is dubbed with a sound-recording of a different phoneme being spoken. Often, the perceived phoneme is a third, intermediate phoneme. For example, a visual /ga/ combined with an audio /ba/ is often heard as /da/. Further research has shown that it can exist throughout whole sentences.[citation needed] The effect is very robust; that is, knowledge about it seems to have little effect on one's perception of it. This is different from certain optical illusions, which break down once one 'sees through' them.
speech  perception  language  linguistics  audio  vision  aural  illusion  hearing  video  sound  lip  reading  interest  wikipedia  psychology  mcgurk 
may 2010 by davidar

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