large-factor   31

Genes, Evolution and Intelligence
I argue that the g factor meets the fundamental criteria of a scientific construct more fully than any other conception of intelligence. I briefly discuss the evidence regarding the relationship of brain size to intelligence. A review of a large body of evidence demonstrates that there is a g factor in a wide range of species and that, in the species studied, it relates to brain size and is heritable. These findings suggest that many species have evolved a general-purpose mechanism (a general biological intelligence) for dealing with the environments in which they evolved. In spite of numerous studies with considerable statistical power, we know of very few genes that influence g and the effects are very small. Nevertheless, g appears to be highly polygenic. Given the complexity of the human brain, it is not surprising that that one of its primary faculties—intelligence—is best explained by the near infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.
pdf  study  survey  psychology  cog-psych  iq  intelligence  psychometrics  large-factor  biodet  behavioral-gen  genetics  neuro  neuro-nitgrit  brain-scan  🌞  psych-architecture 
august 2017 by nhaliday
Sex differences in latent cognitive abilities ages 6 to 59: Evidence from the Woodcock–Johnson III tests of cognitive abilities

The higher-order, latent g factor showed inconsistent differences for children, small, non-significant differences favoring females for adolescents, and fairly consistent statistically significant differences favoring females in adulthood. Findings are inconsistent with developmental theory that suggests males should show an advantage on g in adulthood. Supplemental analyses suggested that methodological choices, including the use of latent variables versus composites and methods for dealing with missing data, can affect research findings.
study  psychology  cog-psych  iq  psychometrics  gender  gender-diff  pop-diff  regularizer  multi  twitter  social  commentary  large-factor  developmental  backup 
may 2017 by nhaliday
Identifying the Determinants of Attitudes towards Immigrants: A Structural Cross-Country Analysis
not much of a difference by gender (seems female->more supportive in northern countries, less supportive in southern countries), biggest thing is urbanity+educational attainment
Vote share for WEuro populist parties higher in regions: rural, ⇈foreigners, ⇈unemployment, AND ⇈education except in cities (surprising)
the urban educated hate the nationalist parties but the nonurban educated are prone to support them. Not all educated are alike

The success of radical right-wing parties in Western European regions – new challenging findings:

Can Television Reduce Xenophobia? The Case of East Germany:
To examine this question, we exploit the fact that individuals in some areas of East Germany – due to their geographic location – could not receive West German television until 1989. We conjecture that individuals who received West German television were exposed more frequently to foreigners and thus have developed less xenophobia than people who were not exposed to those programs. Our results show that regions that could receive West German television were less likely to vote for right-wing parties during the national elections from 1998 to 2013. Only recently, the same regions were also more likely to vote for left-wing parties. Moreover, while counties that hosted more foreigners in 1989 were also more likely to vote for right-wing parties in most elections, we find counties that recently hosted more foreign visitors showed less xenophobia, which is in line with intergroup contact theory.

With an Open Mind: Openness to Experience Moderates the Effect of Interethnic Encounters on Support for Immigration:

Refugees Unwelcome? Changes in the Public Acceptance of Immigrants and Refugees in Germany in the Course of Europe’s ‘Immigration Crisis’:
Derived from discussions making up the German immigration discourse during this time, we expect reduced acceptance especially of those immigrants who were explicitly connected to the salient events, like Muslims and the offenders of NYE. Most strikingly, we find that refugees were generally highly accepted and even more so in the second wave, whereas the acceptance of immigrants from Arab or African countries further decreased. Moreover, _female respondents’ initial preference for male immigrants_ disappeared. Contrary to our expectations, we find no changes in the acceptance of Muslims.
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may 2017 by nhaliday
PsycARTICLES - Is education associated with improvements in general cognitive ability, or in specific skills?
Results indicated that the association of education with improved cognitive test scores is not mediated by g, but consists of direct effects on specific cognitive skills. These results suggest a decoupling of educational gains from increases in general intellectual capacity.

look at Model C for the coefficients

How much does education improve intelligence? A meta-analysis:
Intelligence test scores and educational duration are positively correlated. This correlation can be interpreted in two ways: students with greater propensity for intelligence go on to complete more education, or a longer education increases intelligence. We meta-analysed three categories of quasi-experimental studies of educational effects on intelligence: those estimating education-intelligence associations after controlling for earlier intelligence, those using compulsory schooling policy changes as instrumental variables, and those using regression-discontinuity designs on school-entry age cutoffs. Across 142 effect sizes from 42 datasets involving over 600,000 participants, we found consistent evidence for beneficial effects of education on cognitive abilities, of approximately 1 to 5 IQ points for an additional year of education. Moderator analyses indicated that the effects persisted across the lifespan, and were present on all broad categories of cognitive ability studied. Education appears to be the most consistent, robust, and durable method yet to be identified for raising intelligence.

three study designs: control for prior IQ, exogenous policy change, and school age cutoff regression discontinuity
It’s surprising that there isn’t much of a fadeout (p11) – half of the effect size is still there by age 70 (?!). That wasn’t what I expected. Maybe they’re being pulled upwards by smaller outlier studies – most of the bigger ones tend towards the lower end.
These gains are hollow, as they acknowledge in the discussion. Examples:
albion  spearhead  scitariat  study  psychology  cog-psych  iq  large-factor  education  intervention  null-result  longitudinal  britain  anglo  psychometrics  psych-architecture  graphs  graphical-models  causation  neuro-nitgrit  effect-size  stylized-facts  direct-indirect  flexibility  input-output  evidence-based  preprint  multi  optimism  meta-analysis  west-hunter  poast  commentary  aging  marginal  europe  nordic  shift  twitter  social  backup  ratty  gwern  links  flynn  environmental-effects  debate  roots 
march 2017 by nhaliday
Why g Matters: The Complexity of Everyday Life
- that classic carpet example among other things
- note that many manufacturing/trade jobs are fairly high up on the ladder
pdf  study  essay  rhetoric  explanation  intelligence  iq  psychometrics  large-factor  psychology  cog-psych  stylized-facts  heavy-industry  chart  spearhead  article  labor  s-factor  sociology 
march 2017 by nhaliday
Principal Component Analysis explained visually
The PCA transformation ensures that the horizontal axis PC1 has the most variation, the vertical axis PC2 the second-most, and a third axis PC3 the least.

I think this is equivalent to variational characterization of singular values?
data-science  explanation  visual-understanding  visualization  techtariat  stats  methodology  exploratory  large-factor  better-explained  let-me-see  matrix-factorization 
january 2017 by nhaliday

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