knockoffs   40

[1801.03896] Robust inference with knockoffs
"We consider the variable selection problem, which seeks to identify important variables influencing a response Y out of many candidate features X1,…,Xp. We wish to do so while offering finite-sample guarantees about the fraction of false positives - selected variables Xj that in fact have no effect on Y after the other features are known. When the number of features p is large (perhaps even larger than the sample size n), and we have no prior knowledge regarding the type of dependence between Y and X, the model-X knockoffs framework nonetheless allows us to select a model with a guaranteed bound on the false discovery rate, as long as the distribution of the feature vector X=(X1,…,Xp) is exactly known. This model selection procedure operates by constructing "knockoff copies'" of each of the p features, which are then used as a control group to ensure that the model selection algorithm is not choosing too many irrelevant features. In this work, we study the practical setting where the distribution of X could only be estimated, rather than known exactly, and the knockoff copies of the Xj's are therefore constructed somewhat incorrectly. Our results, which are free of any modeling assumption whatsoever, show that the resulting model selection procedure incurs an inflation of the false discovery rate that is proportional to our errors in estimating the distribution of each feature Xj conditional on the remaining features {Xk:k≠j}. The model-X knockoff framework is therefore robust to errors in the underlying assumptions on the distribution of X, making it an effective method for many practical applications, such as genome-wide association studies, where the underlying distribution on the features X1,…,Xp is estimated accurately but not known exactly."
to:NB  regression  variable_selection  statistics  samworth.richard_j.  knockoffs  to_teach:linear_models 
september 2018 by cshalizi
Shanzhai 山寨 China & its Contents
As he drinks Sino-coffee for around RMB 10, Comrade X might well be wearing the latest ‘ZARE’ couture while watching the TV news streaming on his HiPhone.[2] Back in Guangdong, his girlfriend — a sales consultant at a small stall in one of Shenzhen’s many wholesale electronics markets — sports a ‘high-end replica’ 高仿 Louis Vuitton bag and makes a living selling ‘domestically produced’ 国产 and ‘smuggled’ 水货 smartphones. The imitation products that festoon the couple’s lives are part of ‘shanzhai 山寨 China’.

Shanzhai, the word means roughly ‘mass-produced imitation goods’, has created a Chinese landscape that is littered with products derided by the media, Chinese and international, as ‘copycat’, ‘guerrilla counterfeits’ and ‘knockoffs’, all the work of thieves.[3] Those who feel that their intellectual property and copyright has been infringed by shanzhai producers describe the products as ‘rubbish’, ‘piracy in disguise’ and ‘hooligan’.[4] Regardless of such righteous outrage, shanzhai — the producers, the products and the mentality — continues to flourish as an essential, quasi-legitimate shadow dimension of the Chinese economy. And, in practical terms, shanzhai products give disenfranchised ‘non-consumers’ of the orthodox economy — that is, people who would like to own but can’t afford the ‘original’ products — cut-price access to high-end technologies, as well as offering aspirational shoppers consumer satisfaction.
shanzai  china  fakes  consumerism  hiphone  smartphones  copycat  knockoffs  imitation  consumption 
january 2018 by jm
The Fashion Outlaw Dapper Dan
JUNE 3, 2017 | The New York Times | By BARRY MICHAEL COOPER.

Twenty-five years after luxury labels sued his Harlem
boutique out of existence, Gucci looks to him for inspiration......Things have come full circle. Litigation by luxury brands ran Dapper Dan’s Boutique out of business in the ’90s, and now here comes a major fashion house trying to grab the attention of a generation steeped in hip-hop by finding inspiration in a onetime fashion outlaw...... last week after Gucci unveiled a jacket that looked very much like one he designed nearly three decades ago for the Olympic sprinter Diane Dixon.

The fur-lined piece with balloon sleeves created by Mr. Day in the 1980s made use of the Louis Vuitton logo without the brand’s permission. The new Gucci jacket, designed by Gucci’s creative director, Alessandro Michele, remakes the Dapper Dan jacket, but with the interlocking double-G Gucci logo in place of the Louis Vuitton markings......Gucci [now] acknowledges its debt to the designer......In addition to Gucci’s recent salutation, the Museum of Modern Art plans to include Mr. Day’s work in its fall show “Items.” In an email, MoMA’s senior curator of architecture and design, Paola Antonelli, called Mr. Day a “trailblazer” who “showed even the guardians of the original brands the power of creative appropriation, the new life that an authentically ‘illicit’ use could inject into a stale logo, as well as the commercial potential of a stodgy monogram’s walk on the hip-hop side.”.....“What Dap did was take what those major fashion labels were doing and made them better,” said the rapper Darold Ferguson, Jr., who goes by the stage name ASAP Ferg and whose father, Darold Sr., worked at the boutique in the ’80s. “He taught them how to use their designs in a much more effective way. Dap curated hip-hop culture.”

Steve Stoute, the chief executive of the marketing firm Translation, said: “I think what Dap did, he actually taught an entire generation how to engage with luxury brands. Luxury brands, at that point, were not for us. They didn’t even have sizing for black people. So every time I walk into Louis Vuitton to buy a pair of sneakers, or buy a pair of pants in my size, I know they’re only doing it because of Dapper Dan.”....experiences with poverty growing up [crummy shoes] gave him an understanding of how clothes reflect social status.... the need to dress to impress is part of a generational mind-set for many black men who grew up in Harlem......Clothes designing sounds fascinating, but it’s hard work. Folks don’t realize that there are limitations in the body form. We’re humans: We have arms, legs, chest. The exciting part of designing clothes is that you can be really creative within the context of those limitations.”.......Samira Nasr, the fashion director for Elle magazine, likened Mr. Day’s work to that of the innovative hip-hop D.J.s of the era, such as Jason Mizell, a client of Mr. Day’s. Mr. Mizell, who died in 2002, created beats for Run-DMC under the name Jam Master Jay. “Sampling was taking existing music and slicing it to recreate new sounds for original lyrics,” Ms. Nasr wrote in an email. “Dap was sampling in a way. He was taking existing fabrications and breathing new life and beauty into them.”
litigation  luxury  brands  clothing_labels  Gucci  Harlem  stylish  mens'_clothing  African-Americans  New_York_City  sampling  streetwise  '80s  '90s  inspiration  hip_hop  fashion  outlaws  design  retailers  knockoffs  copycats  creative_appropriation  underground_economy  crack_cocaine 
june 2017 by jerryking
Amazon's Counterfeit Problem is Getting Worse and Sellers are Enraged
A licensed nurse, Whaley started a bedding business on Amazon that reached $700,000 in annual sales within three years. Her patented product called BedBand consists of a set of shock cords, clamps and locks designed to keep fitted bed sheets in place.

Whaley and her husband found quite an audience, selling up to 200 units a day for $13.99 a set. BedBand climbed into the top 200 selling products in the home and kitchen category. That was 2013.

By mid-2015, the business was in a tailspin. Revenue plummeted by half and Whaley was forced to lay off eight employees. Her sheet fastener had been copied by a legion of mostly Chinese knockoffs that undercut BedBand on price and jumped the seller ranks by obtaining scores of reviews that watchdog site determined were inauthentic and "harmful for real consumers."
amazon  counterfeiting  knockoffs  china  business  startups  2016 
july 2016 by Frontrunner
How to Knock Off a Bag - YouTube
Saddleback Leather posts a video showing people how to knock off their bags. All of the options make the quality worse, but quality is what Saddleback sells.
Marketing  Quality  Knockoffs 
february 2014 by JB4GDI

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