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Protected Mode (Code) – Philo Wiki
"Aus: Friedrich Kittler: Protected Mode. In: Draculas Vermächtnis. Technische Schriften. Leipzig 1993 S. 210ff. (Erschienen 1991)"
kittler  friedrichkittler  hardware  intel  protectedmode  realmode  memory  wtf  philosophy  theory 
december 2015 by gohai
Cultural Techniques and Logistical Media: Tuning German and Anglo-American Media Studies | Liam Cole Young | M/C Journal
Kittler’s media ontology sought to correct and displace Foucault’s conception of the archive as historical a priori. To sum up this move in one sentence: Kittler went a layer deeper than Foucault’s archaeologies did or could, showing the archive and discourse to be themselves always structured by media technologies: no discourse without pens, paper, and typewriters, no archives without recording media and address systems, no governmentality without files. According to Kittler, Foucault’s understanding did not go far enough because he—“the last historian or first archaeologist” (5)—was unable to think beyond conventional alphanumeric writing systems. Kittler showed that before it can ever condition subjects, or even be articulated as language, power/knowledge is forged via the processing, storage, and transmission of signals....

‘Cultural techniques’ first emerged in the late 19th century to describe agricultural procedures like irrigation and draining, straightening riverbeds, or constructing water reservoirs... The culture in cultural techniques originally had to do with cultivation, nurturing, or rendering habitable.... Imported from agricultural science into media theory—after a brief stopover in mass media studies (see Winthrop-Young “Kultur” 381-82)—cultural techniques are “conceived as operative chains that precede the media concepts they generate” (Siegert, “End” 58). This approach starts not with totalizing concepts like ‘media,’ ‘network,’ or ‘power,’ but instead

places at the basis of changes in cultural and intellectual history inconspicuous techniques of knowledge like card indexes, media of pedagogy like the slate, discourse operators like quotation marks, uses of the phonograph in phonetics, or techniques of forming the individual like practices of teaching to read and write....

Media and things supply their own rules of execution—we do not choose how to open or close a door, to take one of Siegert’s favourite examples (see “Doors”). A door does not present us with an open horizon of possibility. We must act according to the rules it sets out for us: push or pull, open or close. A door has agency in the sense that it structures what is possible for praxis. Thinking of a door in this way shows the picture of agency we usually work with, as reserved for acting human subjects, to be insufficient....

This tradition is not interested in the content or meaning of media or things, historically the focus of Anglo-American media and cultural studies, only in ways of doing—counting, measuring, collecting, observing, playing, confessing, listing—because these engender systems of knowing and modes of social organization. ‘Media’ as we understand them (e.g. gramophones, telegraphs, and computers) communicate and order by encoding non-sense into sense (and vice versa). This is done via the recording or transmission of signals, or the translating of data into alphanumeric characters....

Sterne: Format theory would ask us to modulate the scale of our analysis of media somewhat differently. Mediality happens on multiple scales and time frames. Studying formats highlights registers like software, operating standards, and codes, as well as larger infrastructures, international corporate consortia, and whole technical systems...

John Durham Peters similarly describes what he calls ‘logistical media,’ which “arrange people and property into time and space” (Peters, “Calendar” 40). These are “prior to and form the grid in which messages are sent […] Logistical media establish the zero points of orientation, the convergence of the x and y axis” (40). In ancient societies, technologies like the calendar and clock established grids through which time came to be experienced, measured and calculated (as Mumford understood in 1934)....

Ned Rossiter extends Peters’s concept to account for conditions of labour and life in contemporary network cultures. For him, logistical media “coordinate and control the movement of labour, people, and things situated along and within global supply chains” (Rossiter, “Coded”). They are devices, protocols, and structures that establish parameters within which movement occurs. According to Bratton, design—whether architectural, infrastructural, or computational—produces “logistical media for mobilization and its administration, technologies that consolidate territory into logistical field and enable a Modern governance based on the abstracted calculation over omnidirectional spaces and surfaces, from open oceans to shared spreadsheets”....

Even though they use the term ‘media’ to develop the concept of logistical media, Peters and Rossiter actually identify moments prior to media, in which devices and techniques process logistical distinctions that establish concepts like time, space, being and ‘media’ itself. Peters’s and Rossiter’s logistical media are cultural techniques by another name. In fact, conceiving of logistical media as a series of interrelated cultural techniques may be a more productive move. ...

Innis was after something like a theory of civilizational cultural techniques..... Innis’s early studies were archaeologies of trade and infrastructure that showed how nation states, economies, cycles of accumulation and circulation, and even national identities arise from encounters between humans, terrain, waterways, and fauna, and in response to problems of transportation and navigation, i.e. logistics. This was a radically new approach to understanding economic and civilizational history that emerged from Innis’s commitment to what he called ‘dirt research.’ From 1924 Innis traveled hundreds of miles by Canoe across Canada in order to gather first-hand observations about staples.
cultural_technique  archives  foucault  kittler  logistics  storage  files  infrastructure 
may 2015 by shannon_mattern - Kittler
Kittler, Friedrich Kittler, Draculas Vermächtnis, Reclam Verlag Leipzig, 1993. The remarkable science called media history, should have a preference for technologies that read or write. This is the program of Germany's most important media theorist Friedrich Kittler, who recently moved to Berlin to head the new Aesthetics Institute at the (purged) Humboldt University.
january 2015 by rottytooth
What is psychophysics?
"Psychophysics is commonly defined as the quantitative branch of the study of perception, examining the relations between observed stimuli and responses and the reasons for those relations. This is, however, a very narrow view of the influence it has had on much of psychology. Since its inception, psychophysics has been based on the assumption that the human perceptual system is a measureing instrument yielding results (experiences, judgments, responses) that may be systematically analyzed. Because of its long history (over 140 years), its experimental methods, data analyses, and models of underlying perceptual and cognitive processes have reached a high level of refinement. For this reason, many techniques originally developed in psychophysics have been used to unravel problems in learning, memory, attitude measurement, and social psychology. In addition, scaling and measurement theory have adapted these methods and models to analyze decision making in contexts entirely divorced from perception."
Kittler  media_theory 
february 2014 by ccarey
Kittler on the NSA
The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond”
kittler  nsa  cryptography 
february 2014 by edsu
Kittler and the Sirens « LRB blog
Rembrance by Tom McCarthy

"We corresponded again last month, after Kittler’s death. ‘The arrival of the gods,’ she said, ‘took place after the four machines that kept him alive were turned off.’ He’d given the command himself: his last words were ‘Alle Apparate auschalten’ – switch off all apparatuses."
kittler  eng730  mccarthy  tommccarthy 
february 2014 by cforster
taz-Artikel von 1986 über NSA: „No Such Agency“ -
Schöne Literatur, deren Ende mit der Telegraphie begann
Kittler  NSA 
january 2014 by traumawien

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