human_progress   21

The Belief in a Favorable FuturePsychological Science - Todd Rogers, Don A. Moore, Michael I. Norton, 2017
People believe that future others’ preferences and beliefs will change to align with their own. People holding a particular view (e.g., support of President Trump) are more likely to believe that future others will share their view than to believe that future others will have an opposing view (e.g., opposition to President Trump). Six studies demonstrated this belief in a favorable future (BFF) for political views, scientific beliefs, and entertainment and product preferences. BFF is greater in magnitude than the tendency to believe that current others share one’s views (false-consensus effect), arises across cultures, is distinct from general optimism, is strongest when people perceive their views as being objective rather than subjective, and can affect (but is distinct from) beliefs about favorable future policy changes. A lab experiment involving monetary bets on the future popularity of politicians and a field experiment involving political donations (N = 660,542) demonstrated that BFF can influence people’s behavior today.
prediction  judgment_decision-making  heuristics  the_civilizing_process  critique  ?  teaching  moral_values  human_progress 
august 2017 by rvenkat
The Idea of Justice — Amartya Sen | Harvard University Press
Social justice: an ideal, forever beyond our grasp; or one of many practical possibilities? More than a matter of intellectual discourse, the idea of justice plays a real role in how—and how well—people live. And in this book the distinguished scholar Amartya Sen offers a powerful critique of the theory of social justice that, in its grip on social and political thinking, has long left practical realities far behind.

The transcendental theory of justice, the subject of Sen’s analysis, flourished in the Enlightenment and has proponents among some of the most distinguished philosophers of our day; it is concerned with identifying perfectly just social arrangements, defining the nature of the perfectly just society. The approach Sen favors, on the other hand, focuses on the comparative judgments of what is “more” or “less” just, and on the comparative merits of the different societies that actually emerge from certain institutions and social interactions.

At the heart of Sen’s argument is a respect for reasoned differences in our understanding of what a “just society” really is. People of different persuasions—for example, utilitarians, economic egalitarians, labor right theorists, no-nonsense libertarians—might each reasonably see a clear and straightforward resolution to questions of justice; and yet, these clear and straightforward resolutions would be completely different. In light of this, Sen argues for a comparative perspective on justice that can guide us in the choice between alternatives that we inevitably face.
book  development_economics  moral_philosophy  welfare  economics  human_progress  ?  jurisprudence 
july 2017 by rvenkat
The Quest for a Moral Compass by Kenan Malik | PenguinRandomHouse.com
In this remarkable and groundbreaking book, Kenan Malik explores the history of moral thought as it has developed over three millennia, from Homer’s Greece to Mao’s China, from ancient India to modern America. It tells the stories of the great philosophers, and breathes life into their ideas, while also challenging many of our most cherished moral beliefs.

Engaging and provocative, The Quest for a Moral Compass confronts some of humanity’s deepest questions. Where do values come from? Is God necessary for moral guidance? Are there absolute moral truths? It also brings morality down to earth, showing how, throughout history, social needs and political desires have shaped moral thinking. It is a history of the world told through the history of moral thought, and a history of moral thought that casts new light on global history.


From the eBook edition.
ethics  moral_philosophy  human_progress  the_civilizing_process  book 
june 2017 by rvenkat
Inglehart, R.: Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies. (Paperback)
Ronald Inglehart argues that economic development, cultural change, and political change go together in coherent and even, to some extent, predictable patterns. This is a controversial claim. It implies that some trajectories of socioeconomic change are more likely than others--and consequently that certain changes are foreseeable. Once a society has embarked on industrialization, for example, a whole syndrome of related changes, from mass mobilization to diminishing differences in gender roles, is likely to appear. These changes in worldviews seem to reflect changes in the economic and political environment, but they take place with a generational time lag and have considerable autonomy and momentum of their own. But industrialization is not the end of history. Advanced industrial society leads to a basic shift in values, de-emphasizing the instrumental rationality that characterized industrial society. Postmodern values then bring new societal changes, including democratic political institutions and the decline of state socialist regimes. To demonstrate the powerful links between belief systems and political and socioeconomic variables, this book draws on a unique database, the World Values Surveys. This database covers a broader range than ever before available for looking at the impact of mass publics on political and social life. It provides information from societies representing 70 percent of the world's population--from societies with per capita incomes as low as $300 per year to those with per capita incomes one hundred times greater and from long-established democracies with market economies to authoritarian states.

--https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Inglehart
book  cultural_evolution  data  world_values_survey  world_trends  economic_history  cultural_history  liberalism  moral_values  the_civilizing_process  ?  human_progress  dmce  teaching 
june 2017 by rvenkat
Angus Deaton, Nobel Laureate, on Trump, Poverty, and Opioids - The Atlantic
-- read his critical remarks on Gordon's non-replicability of technological innovations and one sentence takes on other books that traces white poverty.
inequality  economics  health  book  review  united_states_of_america  nationalism  sociology  civilizing_process  ?  human_progress  the_atlantic 
march 2017 by rvenkat
India Real GDP Per Capita
-- That's a lot of people having a better life than they did 20 years back. I know we still have around 300 million in poverty but the utilitarian in me wants to see progress...
india  economics  human_progress  time_series  for_friends 
may 2016 by rvenkat
How the West (and the Rest) Got Rich - WSJ
Her homepage here (http://deirdremccloskey.com/). Interesting take on global human progress. Her 'Bourgeois era' trilogy seems interesting.....

Critiques of North and Institutional Economics aside, her contrarian ideas are worth thinking about.
economics  human_progress  history_of_ideas  economist  historian  book  via:noahpinion 
may 2016 by rvenkat
Mortality Inequality: The Good News from a County-Level Approach
Analysts who have concluded that inequality in life expectancy is increasing have generally focused on life expectancy at age 40 to 50. However, we show that among infants, children, and young adults, mortality has been falling more quickly in poorer areas with the result that inequality in mortality has fallen substantially over time. This is an important result given the growing literature showing that good health in childhood predicts better health in adulthood and suggests that today’s children are likely to face considerably less inequality in mortality as they age than current adults.

We also show that there have been stunning declines in mortality rates for African-Americans between 1990 and 2010, especially for black men. The fact that inequality in mortality has been moving in opposite directions for the young and the old, as well as for some segments of the African-American and non-African-American populations argues against a single driver of trends in mortality inequality, such as rising income inequality. Rather, there are likely to be multiple specific causes affecting different segments of the population.
welfare  mortality_risk  inequality  human_progress  21st_century  united_states_of_america 
may 2016 by rvenkat
Home | HumanProgress.org
Part of the Cato Institute. They have a good amount of well-being data.
human_progress  blog  data 
december 2015 by rvenkat

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