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Saint Louverture | Helen Andrews
She says subsistence farming reduced the Haitian economy to a "nullity", but doesn't mention diplomatic isolation or the French indemnity.
revolutions  haiti  conservatism 
5 weeks ago by daniel.c.mccarthy
Twitter
: Serious charges of government-sponsored murders in La Saline, a poor area of . Etant Dupain (…
PortAuPrince  Haiti  from twitter_favs
8 weeks ago by andriak
Frankétienne's spirals: chaos theory, minor literature and generic limits | Mary Cobb Wittrock - Academia.edu
"This article elucidates the distinct relationship between Frankétienne’s spiral writing and Ilya Prigogine and Isabelle Stengers’ contemporary chaos theory demonstrating that chaos theory is an important paradigm to consider in literary analysis of the twentieth and twenty-first century. The open-ended nature of Frankétienne’s spiral interprets the Arrow of Time as proposed by Prigogine and Stengers; that is, that time is not reversible and the future and the past do not have a direct, linear rela-tionship. In essence, Prigogine and Stengers proposed that order evolves out of chaos. Furthermore, the fractalized, noisy, chaotic schizophony illustrated in his works imitates the bifurcation process in chaos theory when a system, far from equilibrium, undergoes self-organizing iterations from chaos to either order or morechaos. As a result, this analysis will examine how two of Frankétienne’s works, Ultravocal and H’Éros-Chimères, challenge the limits of traditional genre theory, and will show that his schizophonic writing exists in a state ‘far from equilibrium’ allowing a deleuzian minor language and literature to be exposed."
frankétienne  marycobbittrock  2010  haiti  spiralism  literature  isabellestenger  ilyaprigogine  chaostheory 
9 weeks ago by robertogreco
OAPEN Library - Haiti Unbound: A Spiralist Challenge to the Postcolonial Canon, by Kaiama L. Glover
"Touching on the role and destiny of Haiti in the Americas, Haiti Unbound engages with long-standing issues of imperialism and resistance culture in the transatlantic world. Glover's timely project emphatically articulates Haiti's regional and global centrality, combining vital 'big picture' reflections on the field of postcolonial studies with elegant close-reading-based analyses of the philosophical perspective and creative practice of a distinctively Haitian literary phenomenon. Providing insightful and sophisticated blueprints for the reading and teaching of the Spiralists' prose fiction, it will serve as a point of reference for the works of these authors and for the singular socio-political space out of and within which they write."
haiti  literature  spiritualism  spiralism  kaiamaglover  2011  fiction  postcolonialism  frankétienne  jean-claudefignolé  renéphiloctète 
9 weeks ago by robertogreco
Inter-Actualités Magazine: Jean L. Dominique ak Frankétienne sou woman «Dezafi» / Radio Haiti Archive / Duke Digital Repository
"Frankétienne ak Jean Dominique pale sou woman Frankétienne ekri a, «Dezafi», ki se premye woman ki ekri nan lang kreyòl la. Frankétienne eksplike kisa kreyòl la ka eksprime ke franse a pa ka kapte, epi li eksplike koman zanmitay li menm ak Dominique te ede l ekri woman sa a.

Frankétienne and Jean Dominique discuss Frankétienne's novel DEZAFI, the first novel written in Haitian Creole. Frankétienne describes what Haitian Creole can communicate that French cannot, and the influence of Dominique's friendship during the writing of this novel.

Jean Dominique et Frankétienne se penchent sur le nouveau livre qu'a écrit ce dernier, « Dezafi », le premier roman publié en créole. Frankétienne explique comment le créole peut faire passer des choses impossibles à exprimer en français et comment son amitié avec Jean Dominique l'a aidé dans le processus de rédaction."
frankétienne  1975  haiti 
9 weeks ago by robertogreco
Review: 'Ready to Burst' by Franketienne - Chicago Tribune
"This is the book of an intellectual, French and Haitian style, filled with ideas, politics, snatches of conversations, contemporary retellings of folktales. Zombies, unnamed, stalk through its pages. Engrossing as all this is, it's right to be wary of a book that opens with this declaration: "I no longer worry about what I write. I simply write. Because I must. Because I'm suffocating. I write anything. Any way."

Here, back in 1968, Frankétienne is making his declaration against writing as a trade or business. For him, writing is a mission and a doctrine with a name: Spiralism, which he created in the mid-1960s along with two other highly regarded Haitian writers, Jean-Claude Fignolé and René Philoctète, all of whom were persecuted by Papa Doc's regime, like all members of the intelligentsia who did not come to heel. Described in somewhat ecstatic terms in the novel, both by an unnamed first person narrator and later, at greater length, by Paulin, Spiralism seems, to our contemporary minds, antiquated or wacky, like Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Spiritualism. But it is much more rigorous than that, and much closer to a literary theory and an aesthetic movement.

"Spiralism," the narrator tells us on the very first page, "defines life … not in a closed circuit, but tracing the path of a spiral. So rich that each new curve, wider and higher than the one before, expands the arc of one's vision." Whenever friends converse in these pages, we get a real sense of the intellectual and political ferment of the 1960s as it touched Haiti, from which the idea of Spiralism grew.

The narrator describes Spiralism also as a kind of "explosive vertigo," and that's how the reader feels as he or she follows Raynand walking to the wharf, or traveling out of the country to the Bahamas (briefly), or as he sails back to Haiti, or coming upon a political rally, or being hurled into prison, or ending upon his sickbed. Raynand walks everywhere because, he says, walking is "his sole and apparent freedom" in a book where Haiti is depicted as a sort of grand, inescapable penitentiary.

The book has the occasional stylistic flaws of its era ("Electricity. Mechanics. Ballistics. And from end to end, the tragicomedy of History. Vast circus of dwarves and clowns"). But the sinewy strength of the rest of the work pushes the reader beyond those fragmentary bits onward to an appreciation of the artistic whole. Frankétienne can bore you with a few paragraphs of blather on Spiralism and then stun you with simple language like this: "(He) carefully sparks the purple flame of a lovely little yellow lighter." Often, when reading a wild, passionate, exotic and surreal passage about a crowd or a scene or a landscape, I felt the pang of surprised recognition. You feel, too, as you will if you've ever been to actual Haiti, that you've gotten lost inside a fantastic and writhing Haitian painting. (Frankétienne is also a painter and a playwright.)

Those Haitian paintings, of markets, of crowds, of Vodou ceremonies, and other aspects of Haitian daily life, are timeless, and so is the Haiti Frankétienne describes, both for better and for worse. Timeless is Haiti's undercurrent of revolution. Timeless are its elite's pronouncements about the dignity of the individual. Timeless, too, is the appearance of the spiritual world in the world of daily life.

Equally persistent, unfortunately, are the untreated malaria, the abandoned children treated as slaves, the terminal tuberculosis, the lifelong unemployment, the degradation of women, the useless and corrupt government, the inconclusive political unrest, the endless ineffective blah blah blah (actually a phrase in Haitian Creole) of the Haitian intellectual class — all liabilities of a country that in the last half century and more has experienced the inroads of globalization as the direst of poverty.

We are so lucky, and Frankétienne is so lucky, that Kaiama L. Glover has come along to translate his works into English and to give Spiralism the international attention it deserves as a historic Caribbean literary movement.

I interviewed Frankétienne in 1986, when I first arrived in Haiti. I had no idea what he was talking about then and couldn't get over the fact that he had put his two names together. Thinking back on it, I'm sure he was talking about regime change and Spiralism. And now, having finally, belatedly, read "Ready to Burst," I know what he meant."
frankétienne  1968  2014  books  haiti  spiralism  amywilentz 
9 weeks ago by robertogreco
Frankétienne and Rewriting: A Work in Progress | French Studies | Oxford Academic
"In Frankétienne and Rewriting Rachel Douglas presents an elegant overview of Haitian Spiralist writer Frankétienne's literary praxis, connecting the author's ‘near-obsessive’ (p. 1) revising to broader postcolonial Caribbean literary phenomena. Douglas's study offers a comparative analysis of five major works, emphasizing the ethical and the aesthetic perspectives implicit in Frankétienne's ‘predilection for the process of writing over what is written; for production over finished product; and for the dynamic over the stable’ (p. 160). Douglas rightly insists on the importance of fully contextualizing the works in question, considering them always with respect to the changing historical, socio-economic, and cultural realities of twentieth-century Haiti. Yet, while noting the profound political imperative visible in Frankétienne's writings and rewritings, she is careful always to privilege the works' ‘literariness’ and the material, arguing that literary characteristics in Frankétienne connect with changing political, social, economic, and cultural circumstances in the Haiti he rewrites."

[See also:
https://muse.jhu.edu/article/481621
https://books.google.com/books/about/Frank%C3%A9tienne_and_Rewriting.html?id=ewyPMi4WZPAC
https://www.fabula.org/actualites/r-douglas-franketienne-and-rewriting-a-work-in-progress_31893.php
writing  howwewrite  process  frankétienne  2012  racheldouglas  kaiamaglover  2009  haiti  caribbean 
9 weeks ago by robertogreco
Frankétienne, Father of Haitian Letters, Is Busier Than Ever - The New York Times
"Frankétienne has had prophecies of death (his own) and destruction (Haiti’s).

The earthquake that wrecked this country in January 2010? It was foreseen, said Frankétienne, the man known as the father of Haitian letters, in his play “The Trap.” It was written two months before the disaster and depicts two men in a postapocalyptic landscape, now a familiar sight in his Delmas neighborhood here.

“The voice of God spoke to me,” said Frankétienne, 75, later noting he had also long dwelt on the ecological ruin he believes the planet is hurtling toward. As for his death, that will come in nine years, in 2020, he says, at age 84. He is not sick, he says, but he has learned to “listen to the divine music in all of us.”

And so the prolific novelist, poet and painter — often all three in a single work — hears his coda. He is vowing to complete a multivolume memoir “before I leave, physically,” while keeping up an increasingly busy schedule of exhibitions and conferences.

“I am going to talk about everything I have seen from age 5 or 6,” he said recently at his house-cum-museum and gallery. “And stuff that hasn’t happened yet because I am a prophet.”

Eccentric. Abstract. A “spiralist,” who rejects realism and embraces disorder. Frankétienne — he combined his first and last names years ago — embraces chaos as a style he believes befits a country with a long, tumultuous history birthed in a slave revolt more than 200 years ago and scarred by a cascade of natural and man-made disasters.

In chaos he finds order.

“I am not afraid of chaos because chaos is the womb of light and life,” he said, his baritone voice rising as it does when he gets worked up over a point. “What I don’t like is nonmanagement of chaos. The reason why Haiti looks more chaotic is because of nonmanagement. In other countries it is managed better. Haiti, they should take as reference for what could happen in the rest of world.”

Scholars widely view Frankétienne as Haiti’s most important writer. He wrote what many consider the first modern novel entirely in Haitian Creole, “Dezafi,” in 1975, and a play well known here that challenged political oppression, “Pelin Tet.” It is a biting work from 1978 that is aimed, not so subtly, at Jean-Claude Duvalier, the son of the dictator François Duvalier and himself a former dictator known as Baby Doc, who returned here from exile in January.

Although not well known in the English-speaking world, Frankétienne has star status in French- and Creole-speaking countries and was rumored to be on the short list for a Nobel Prize in Literature in 2009.

After the quake, his works gained more international attention, particularly in Canada and France. “The Trap” debuted in March 2010 at a Unesco forum in Paris that named him an artist for peace; galleries in New York have organized shows featuring his artwork. Still, he also holds informal Sunday workshops with young artists in Haiti to talk about and critique their work.

“He is not only a major Haitian writer, he is probably the major Haitian writer, forever,” said Jean Jonassaint, a Haitian literature scholar at Syracuse University.

Frankétienne’s output, about 40 written works and, by his count, 2,000 paintings and sketches, comprises dense, baroque affairs. He invents new words, blending French and Haitian Creole. Long digressions are de rigueur. His paintings, which he says are selling particularly well these days, blur swirling blacks, blues and reds, often covered with poems.

He admires James Joyce, and it shows. “ ‘Finnegan’s Wake’ was like a crazy book, just like I write crazy books,” he said.

Still, the Haitian-American writer Edwidge Danticat said Frankétienne remained popular among Haitians, in part because some of his plays had been videotaped and passed around in Haiti and in immigrant communities in the United States.

“Pelin Tet,” in which the grim life of two Haitian immigrants in New York deliberately echoes the oppression of the Duvalier era on the island, is a touchstone for many Haitians, said Ms. Danticat, who grew up in the same neighborhood as Frankétienne and was, in part, inspired to write by his rise to the top.

“His work can speak to the most intellectual person in the society as well as the most humble,” she said. “It’s a very generous kind of genius he has, one I can’t imagine Haitian literature ever existing without.”

Frankétienne was born as Franck Étienne on April 12, 1936, and raised in the Bel-Air neighborhood of Port-au-Prince, the son of a Haitian farmworker and an American businessman, who later abandoned her.

Frankétienne’s mother worked as a street vendor — selling cigarettes, charcoal, candies, moonshine — while raising eight children.

“Since I was 5 or 6 I was smoking or drinking, but my mother never knew,” he recalled. He was the oldest, and she strove to send him to school (he, in turn, tutored his younger siblings, leading him to establish his own school).

The school he attended was French-speaking. Frankétienne initially did not know a word of French, but angered at being teased by other students, he set about mastering the language and developing an affinity for words and artistic expression.

His best-known works came in the 1960s and ’70s, and he ranks his novel “Dezafi” as one of his most cherished. Set in a rural Haitian village, it weaves cockfighting, zombification, the history of slavery and other themes into an allegory of the country’s pain and suffering.

“It is the challenge of finding the light to liberate everyone,” he said. He wrote it in Creole, he said, because that was the voice of the characters he imagined.

But Frankétienne also felt a need to assert his Haitian identity, as people often look at his fair skin, blue eyes and white hair and doubt he is from this predominantly black country.

“They might think I am white or mulatto or whatever, but I am not,” he said. “I have black features, Negro features. My mother was an illiterate peasant and she had me when she was 16. She was taken in by an American, a very rich American. The American was 63 and my mother was 16 at the time.”

Switching from Creole to English, which he is usually too timid to speak, he added, “You understand who I am now?”

After completing “Dezafi,” he was frustrated that so few of his compatriots could read it, with nearly half the adult population illiterate. He switched to plays, even if that meant irritating the dictatorship.

“Dictators are mean but not necessarily stupid, so they knew I didn’t have any readers,” Frankétienne said. “What really gave them a problem was when I started with plays.”

Other writers and artists left Haiti during the dictatorship, but he stayed as his reputation grew outside the country and human rights groups closely followed him, providing, he believes, some cover from Mr. Duvalier.

Later, he joined other intellectuals in denouncing Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the first democratically elected president after Jean-Claude Duvalier was overthrown. Mr. Aristide, he said, became fixated on power and tolerated corruption and thuggery in his administration.

“He is a ghost, too,” Frankétienne said of Mr. Aristide’s return in March after seven years in exile.

His only regret, he said, is that his work is not widely translated and better known. If he knew Chinese, Japanese, Italian or other languages, he said, he would put them in his works.

“Everything is interconnected,” he said. “We are connected to everything, everyone.”

Frankétienne added, “The only thing not chaotic is death.”"
frankétienne  haiti  2011  literature  chaos  death  writing  form  theater  poetry  creole  language  identity  education  zombies  voodoo  vodou  voudoun  slavery  history  jeanjonassaint  edwidgedanticat  babdydoc  papadoc  jean-claudeduvalier  françoisduvalier  disorder  order  nonmanagement 
9 weeks ago by robertogreco
Spiralism: Haiti’s Long-Lost Poetics of Protest | Public Books
"Kaiama L. Glover’s choice to translate—brilliantly—this particular work may be seen as a gesture toward reconnecting Spiralism with the broader literary history of the Caribbean, a field largely dominated by Martinican thinkers such as Aimé Césaire and Édouard Glissant.

What is Spiralism? The novel opens with lyrical flights that lay bare the movement’s objectives:
More effective at setting each twig aquiver in the passing of waves than a pebble dropped into a pool of water, Spiralism defines life at the level of relations (colors, odors, sounds, signs, words) and historical connections …

Re-creating wholes from mere details and secondary materials, the practice of Spiralism reconciles Art and Life through literature, and necessarily breaks with the hypocrisy of the Word … Spiralism uses the Complete Genre, in which novelistic description, poetic breath, theatrical effect, narratives, stories, autobiographical sketches, and fiction all coexist harmoniously …


These first pages are not set off from the main narrative as paratextual commentary; instead, they are woven directly into the fabric of the text they foretell."



"Unlike other Franco-Caribbean genres such as Négritude or Créolité, Spiralism does not announce a geopolitical project, but its social dimension is made explicit in Ready to Burst. Like Jean-Paul Sartre’s notion of Total Literature2—a genre that would be legible to both the oppressor and the oppressed, and that would be the synthesis of destruction and construction—Spiralism’s Complete Genre is meant to be accessible to all. As Paulin, the writer and Frankétienne’s fictional alter ego, explains, Spiralism must tailor its shape to the needs of proletarian readers: “Our age doesn’t lend itself to reading literary works, boring in their too often useless length. … Between the fatigue of the night before and that of the day after … the laboring classes only have limited time—if they have any at all—to read printed characters. … And so, it’s a question of stating things quickly.” Spiralism aims to cleanse the written word of its bourgeois nature by freeing it from the conventional sentence. Thus unshackled, Paulin explains, the word acquires velocity and magnitude. It becomes “Inflated with meanings. Swollen with allusions.”

Spiralism is, perhaps above all, a state of mind in the face of life’s absurdity. “Whirlwinds. Vertigos. Storms. My life beats to the rhythm of turbulences,” declares Paulin. “I am a Spiralist. … It’s not that I’m looking to be scandalous. But because life itself emerges from the cry of blood. Wayward child of pain. Of violence. And that, too, is Spiralism.” On the one hand, these semantic splinters perform the feeling of insularity, of oppression, of restlessness, and of fragmentation that characterized the life of the Haitian people under the Duvalier regime; on the other hand, the resistance they stage against traditional literature symbolically punctures all forms of dictatorships.

Spirals are intrinsically infinite, incomplete. Paulin never finishes his novel and eventually vanishes into thin air, having perhaps been a figment of Raynand’s imagination all along. And much as the spiral gives and takes, Frankétienne reminds the reader that his work’s self-proclaimed aesthetic allegiance matters less than the sheer fact of writing: “I no longer worry about what I write. I simply write. Because I must. Because I’m suffocating. I write anything. Any way. People can call it what they want: novel, essay, poem, autobiography, testimony, narrative, memory exercise, or nothing at all. I don’t even know, myself.”"
2015  spiralism  haiti  poetry  poetics  protest  frankétienne  kaimaglover  aimécésaire  édouardglissant  literature  form  corinestofle  jean-paulsartre  canon  legibility  renéphiloctète  jean-claudefignolé 
9 weeks ago by robertogreco
“The Poetic Inflections of a Voice Addressing a Tribe of Men Besieged by Beasts”: Radio Haiti’s Cultural Programming - The Devil's Tale
"Sometimes it feels as though Radio Haiti’s story, like that of Haiti itself, is eclipsed by crisis — that Jean Dominique’s assassination has become the principal lens through which we understand and remember Radio Haiti. But the loss of Jean Dominique and the injustice of his murder matter because his life mattered, because Radio Haiti’s many decades of work and legacy matter. Before the symbolic weight of memory, before the burden of hindsight, before the doomed prophet, there was the daily work of the station — all of which lives on in this archive.

So much comes before death; so much remains when death is no more."



"Radio Haiti’s archive, like a cemetery, like Haiti itself, is a place that could be defined by tragedy, loss and death. The archive, like Haiti’s history, is filled with human rights violations, massacres, impunity, and assassinations.

Yet, listening to artists and iconoclasts, creators and truth-tellers, I recall those same words: It was not death that I found here, in Radio Haiti’s archive. I found intense life here; I did not find death at all."

[See also:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Haiti-Inter
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Dominique
https://soundcloud.com/radiohaitiarchives ]
haiti  radiohaiti  frankétienne  culture  2016  katrinamartin  laurawagner  archives  voodoo  vodou  voudoun  jeandominique  émileollivier  mimibarthélemy  edwidgedanticat  amoscoulanges  tiga  georgescastera  sytocavé  rogergaillard  jeanfouchard  kettlymars  danylaferrière  garyvictor  yanicklahens  ralphallen  jeanrenéjérôme  rose-mariedesruisseau  radiohaiti-inter 
9 weeks ago by robertogreco
Dézafi | The University of Virginia Press
"Dézafi is no ordinary zombie novel. In the hands of the great Haitian author known simply as Frankétienne, zombification takes on a symbolic dimension that stands as a potent commentary on a country haunted by a history of slavery. Now this dynamic new translation brings this touchstone in Haitian literature to English-language readers for the first time.

Written in a provocative experimental style, with a myriad of voices and combining myth, poetry, allegory, magical realism, and social realism, Dézafi tells the tale of a plantation that is run and worked by zombies for the financial benefit of the living owner. The owner's daughter falls in love with a zombie and facilitates his transformation back into fully human form, leading to a rebellion that challenges the oppressive imbalance that had robbed the workers of their spirit. With the walking dead and bloody cockfights (the "dézafi" of the title) as cultural metaphors for Haitian existence, Frankétienne’s novel is ultimately a powerful allegory of political and social liberation."
books  toread  frankétienne  haiti  novels  1975 
9 weeks ago by robertogreco

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