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Artificial Intelligence Can Detect Alzheimer’s Disease in Brain Scans Six Years Before a Diagnosis | UC San Francisco
Once the algorithm was trained on 1,921 scans, the scientists tested it on two novel datasets to evaluate its performance. The first were 188 images that came from the same ADNI database but had not been presented to the algorithm yet. The second was an entirely novel set of scans from 40 patients who had presented to the UCSF Memory and Aging Center with possible cognitive impairment.

The algorithm performed with flying colors. It correctly identified 92 percent of patients who developed Alzheimer’s disease in the first test set and 98 percent in the second test set. What’s more, it made these correct predictions on average 75.8 months – a little more than six years – before the patient received their final diagnosis.

Sohn says the next step is to test and calibrate the algorithm on larger, more diverse datasets from different hospitals and countries.

“I believe this algorithm has the strong potential to be clinically relevant,” he says. “However, before we can do that, we need to validate and calibrate the algorithm in a larger and more diverse patient cohort, ideally from different continents and various different types of settings.”
Alzheimer's  diabetes  brain  glucose  retrospective  human  in  vivo  prognostic  PET  scan  imaging  correlation  peer-reviewed  research 
2 days ago by Michael.Massing
Higher Glucose Enhances Breast Cancer Cell Aggressiveness: Nutrition and Cancer: Vol 0, No 0
Cancer cells overexpress several transcription factors and motor proteins, such as NFkB and kinesin, to accommodate their high energy demand as well as migratory needs via enhanced glycolysis. We hypothesize that high glucose drives cancer progression and cell aggressiveness by decreasing actin expression, increasing NFkB, and kinesin expressions, and by activating Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Using lowly metastatic MCF-7 and highly metastatic MDA-MB231 (MB231) breast cancer cells – highly incident cancer types – we establish how glucose metabolism regulates actin and the biochemical changes that lead to alterations of cell mechanical properties. We find that higher glucose (15 and 30 mM) increases glycolytic enzymes, glucose uptake, migration speed, kinesin, Ki-67, and NFkB expressions (biomarkers), and hybrid EMT phenotype activation (adhesion molecules/cadherins). Downregulation of actin, increased expressions of motor protein and NFkB, and decreased nuclear stiffness – induced by higher glucose – result in a significant increase in the migration speed. Moreover, glucose deprivation using the glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose decreases significantly the migration speed in both cancer cells. Thus, higher glucose promotes a more aggressive phenotype that promises to be a new target for cancer therapy and can help prevent cancer progression in diabetic patients by inhibiting glucose activated mechanisms.
glucose  invasion  231_cells  MCF-7 
7 weeks ago by Segalllab
Blood Sugar 101
General website on Diabetes. Owner is diabetic. Layperson.
diabetes  blood_sugar  glucose  pancreas  insulin 
8 weeks ago by tomjlowe
Comparison of low- and high-carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial. - PubMed - NCBI
Both diets achieved substantial weight loss and reduced HbA1c and fasting glucose. The LC diet, which was high in unsaturated fat and low in saturated fat, achieved greater improvements in the lipid profile, blood glucose stability, and reductions in diabetes medication requirements, suggesting an effective strategy for the optimization of T2D management. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12612000369820.
low  carbohydrate  carbohydrates  diet  HbA1c  fasting  glucose  lipid  profile  blood  stability  time  in  range  medication  treatment  cholesterol  fats  lipids  unsaturated  saturated  fat  self  dietary  management 
10 weeks ago by Michael.Massing
Low-glycemic index diets as an intervention for diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. - PubMed - NCBI
We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and clinical trials registries for published and unpublished studies up until 1 March, 2019. We included 54 randomized controlled trials in adults or children with impaired glucose tolerance, type 1 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes. Continuous data were synthesized using a random effects, inverse variance model, and presented as standardized mean differences with 95% CIs.

RESULTS:
Low-GI diets were effective at reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, BMI, total cholesterol, and LDL, but had no effect on fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HDL, triglycerides, or insulin requirements. The reduction in fasting glucose and HbA1c was inversely correlated with body weight. The greatest reduction in fasting blood glucose was seen in the studies of the longest duration.

CONCLUSIONS:
Low-GI diets may be useful for glycemic control and may reduce body weight in people with prediabetes or diabetes.
foods  low  GI  glycemic  index  diet  food  weight  loss  maintenance  body  fat  clinical  trial  meta-analysis  RCT  peer-reviewed  research  human  in  vivo  systematic  review  HbA1c  biomarkers  treatment  improvement  intervention  fasting  glucose  BMI  total  cholesterol  LDL 
10 weeks ago by Michael.Massing
The Effect of Diet and Exercise or Metformin on the Metabolic Syndrome | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
Over half of the patients had the metabolic syndrome at the start of the study. Diet and exercise or metformin each prevented the development of the metabolic syndrome in patients who did not have it at the start of the study. Patients who had the syndrome at the start of the study were more likely to be free of it at the end if they received a diet and exercise intervention or metformin than if they received neither. The benefit of the diet and exercise program was larger than the benefit of metformin.

What were the limitations of the study?

The study included only people with impaired glucose tolerance, so it might not apply to people with normal blood sugar. The study was also too short to see whether the reduction in the metabolic syndrome led to fewer cardiovascular events.

What are the implications of the study?

Diet and exercise or metformin can reduce the metabolic syndrome in people with high blood sugar.
metformin  treatment  self  drug  behavioral  exercise  diet  clinical  trial  metabolic  syndrome  care  improvement  prevention  symptom  comparison  peer-reviewed  research  impaired  glucose  tolerance  dysglycemia  hyperglycemia 
11 weeks ago by Michael.Massing

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