emergence   3221

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‘Knitting Is Coding’ and Yarn Is Programmable in This Physics Lab
"When discussing the emergent properties of knitting, Dr. Matsumoto sometimes makes reference to a butterfly, the vibrant blue morpho. Its color is optically emergent, the result not of chemical pigment but of structure. In effect, each wing is a metamaterial: covered in layers of nanosized scales, arranged in a pattern called a gyroid surface, the wing absorbs most wavelengths of light, but reflects blue. Knitted fabric is also a metamaterial. A length of yarn is all but inelastic, but when configured in slipknots — in patterns of knits and purls — varying degrees of elasticity emerge. 'Just based on these two stitches, these two fundamental units, we can make a whole series of fabrics, and each of these fabrics has remarkably different elastic properties,' Dr. Matsumoto told the audience."
a:Siobhan-Roberts  p:The-New-York-Times/Science★  d:2019.05.17  w:2000  math  physics  programming  emergence  from instapaper
12 weeks ago by bankbryan
[1907.03902] Uncertainty and causal emergence in complex networks
"The connectivity of a network conveys information about the dependencies between nodes. We show that this information can be analyzed by measuring the uncertainty (and certainty) contained in paths along nodes and links in a network. Specifically, we derive from first principles a measure known as effective information and describe its behavior in common network models. Networks with higher effective information contain more information within the dependencies between nodes. We show how subgraphs of nodes can be grouped into macro-nodes, reducing the size of a network while increasing its effective information, a phenomenon known as causal emergence. We find that causal emergence is common in simulated and real networks across biological, social, informational, and technological domains. Ultimately, these results show that the emergence of higher scales in networks can be directly assessed, and that these higher scales offer a way to create certainty out of uncertainty."
to:NB  information_theory  network_data_analysis  emergence  to_be_shot_after_a_fair_trial  via:vaguery 
august 2019 by cshalizi

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