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What did Max Weber mean by the ‘spirit’ of capitalism? | Aeon Ideas
There was another kind of disintegration besides that of traditional ethics. The proliferation of knowledge and reflection on knowledge had made it impossible for any one person to know and survey it all. In a world which could not be grasped as a whole, and where there were no universally shared values, most people clung to the particular niche to which they were most committed: their job or profession. They treated their work as a post-religious calling, ‘an absolute end in itself’, and if the modern ‘ethic’ or ‘spirit’ had an ultimate found­ation, this was it. One of the most widespread clichés about Weber’s thought is to say that he preached a work ethic. This is a mistake. He personally saw no particular virtue in sweat – he thought his best ideas came to him when relaxing on a sofa with a cigar – and had he known he would be misunder­stood in this way, he would have pointed out that a capacity for hard work was something that did not dist­inguish the modern West from previous soc­ieties and their value systems. However, the idea that people were being ever more defined by the blinkered focus of their employment was one he regarded as profoundly modern and characteristic.

rec'd by Garett Jones
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6 weeks ago by nhaliday
2019 Growth Theory Conference - May 11-12 | Economics Department at Brown University
Guillaume Blanc (Brown) and Romain Wacziarg (UCLA and NBER) "Change and Persistence in the Age of Modernization:
Saint-Germain-d’Anxure, 1730-1895∗"

Figure 4.1.1.1 – Fertility
Figure 4.2.1.1 – Mortality
Figure 5.1.0.1 – Literacy

https://twitter.com/GarettJones/status/1127999888359346177
https://archive.is/1EnZg
Short pre-modern lives weren't overwhelmingly about infant mortality:

From this weekend's excellent Deep Roots conference at @Brown_Economics, new evidence from a small French town, an ancestral home of coauthor Romain Wacziarg:
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European Carpe Diem poems made a lot more sense when 20-year-olds were halfway done with life:
...
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...
N.B. that's not a correction at all, it's telling the same story as the above figure:

Conditioned on surviving childhood, usually living to less than 50 years total in 1750s France and in medieval times.
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6 weeks ago by nhaliday
The Roots of Nationalism: National Identity Formation in Early Modern Europe, 1600-1815 on JSTOR
The Roots of Nationalism: National Identity Formation in Early Modern Europe, 1600-1815
identity  early-modern  nationalis 
6 weeks ago by kmclel1
Science, Identity, and Enlightenment in the Eighteenth Century: Four Biographical Perspectives on JSTOR
Review: Science, Identity, and Enlightenment in the Eighteenth Century: Four Biographical Perspectives
early-modern  identity  mental-health 
6 weeks ago by kmclel1
勒高夫与“长中世纪”
勒高夫选择从“历史分期”这个大问题入手思考。中国读者对历史分期问题不会感到陌生。在作为一门现代学科的中国史学走向形成的过程中,古史分期问题一度扮演了核心角色。共和国“十七年”史学的“五朵金花”中,分期问题居首,而且与另外两朵金花(“中国封建土地所有制形式问题”与“中国资本主义萌芽问题”)密切关联。

可能与他的盛期中世纪视角有关,在《分期》中,勒高夫没有论及与他的主题密切相关的另一项传统分期“晚期中世纪”(大致1350—1500年)及其当代学术史,我们不妨在这里简略地加以补充

给予“长15世纪”这个晚期中世纪与文艺复兴的重叠时段以专门的关注:并非因为期间发生了重大的历史断裂,而是这个时段自身或许具有某些区别于之前的盛期中世纪与之后的早期现代的独特历史气质。

他生平最富学术原创性的两大论断刚好反映了这种张力。一是“时间”的发现。勒高夫认为,中世纪欧洲的最大发明是一种在经济和思想的双重意义上支配和管理时间的意识,而这种意识构成了西方现代文明的基石。二是“民间文化”。在他看来,中世纪基督教文化的主流并非以规整的拉丁语著作和高深的神学思想为代表的高级“教士文化”,而是一种诉诸口头流传、缺乏严格的教义和仪程规范、充满怪力乱神的流行文化。

尽管这个概念本身极少被当代法国学者接受和使用(包括勒高夫)。如今,“早期现代”与“古代晚期”(Late Antiquity)一同构成了英美欧洲史学界最热门的两大领域。
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august 2019 by aries1988
Science - Wikipedia
In Northern Europe, the new technology of the printing press was widely used to publish many arguments, including some that disagreed widely with contemporary ideas of nature. René Descartes and Francis Bacon published philosophical arguments in favor of a new type of non-Aristotelian science. Descartes emphasized individual thought and argued that mathematics rather than geometry should be used in order to study nature. Bacon emphasized the importance of experiment over contemplation. Bacon further questioned the Aristotelian concepts of formal cause and final cause, and promoted the idea that science should study the laws of "simple" natures, such as heat, rather than assuming that there is any specific nature, or "formal cause," of each complex type of thing. This new modern science began to see itself as describing "laws of nature". This updated approach to studies in nature was seen as mechanistic. Bacon also argued that science should aim for the first time at practical inventions for the improvement of all human life.

Age of Enlightenment

...

During this time, the declared purpose and value of science became producing wealth and inventions that would improve human lives, in the materialistic sense of having more food, clothing, and other things. In Bacon's words, "the real and legitimate goal of sciences is the endowment of human life with new inventions and riches", and he discouraged scientists from pursuing intangible philosophical or spiritual ideas, which he believed contributed little to human happiness beyond "the fume of subtle, sublime, or pleasing speculation".[72]
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august 2018 by nhaliday

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