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SIDS: Historical Perspective | American Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Institute
My first job dealing with SIDS was in 1976 with the Florida SIDS Counseling and Information Project. We were one of many statewide projects funded through the National SIDS Act of 1974.

In those days SIDS was viewed as neither predictable nor preventable. Parents were left with the fear that it might happen to their baby and they were helpless to prevent it. Emphasis was on research to learn more about these deaths and counseling for parents whose children died.

Epidemiological research (first conducted in New Zealand then replicated in other countries) identified several modifiable risk factors such as tobacco exposure, prone sleep and more recently bed sharing. Public health campaigns were introduced to teach parents ways to reduce the risk. As a result of these efforts parents can now feel empowered. Although not all deaths can be prevented, the chance of it occurring can be significantly reduced. Rates of sudden infant deaths are less than half what they were in the 1970s.

Another important breakthrough in research was in the 2000s. Hannah Kinney and colleagues at Harvard Medical School found evidence linking sudden infant death to abnormalities in the brainstem, a part of the brain that helps control heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, temperature and arousal. This abnormality may reduce an infant’s capacity to respond to breathing challenges. Click here for more information.

For this type of pathological research to be conducted and replicated, tissue samples from infants who have died suddenly must be made available. The American SIDS Institute with others implemented the SUID Tissue Consortium. This is a project whereby permission is obtained from parents whose infants have died suddenly and the tissue is banked at the NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Brain and Tissue Bank for use by researchers. To read more about the SUID Tissue Consortium, click here.

In summary, I’ve seen a lot of progress related to sleep-related infant deaths in the last 3 decades. However, there are still about 4,000 deaths occurring in the US each year. This is way too many. Join with us to help fund research that hopefully will lead to ending these tragic deaths.
SIDS  diagnosis  cause  of  death  infant  mortality  definition  history  research  epidemiology  pathology  abnormality  brainstem  autonomic  nervous  system  data  bank 
6 days ago by Michael.Massing
suidi.org - SUID Investigations
Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths

Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths are defined as deaths in infants less than 1 year of age that occur suddenly and unexpectedly, and whose cause of death are not immediately obvious prior to investigation.

Each year in the United States, more than 4,500 infants die suddenly of no immediately, obvious cause. Half of these Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID) are due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of SUID and of all deaths among infants aged 1–12 months.

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is defined as the sudden death of an infant less than 1 year of age that cannot be explained after a thorough investigation is conducted, including:

a complete autopsy;
examination of the death scene;
and review of the clinical history.
SIDS is the leading cause of death among infants aged 1–12 months, and is the third leading cause overall of infant mortality in the United States. Although the overall rate of SIDS in the United States has declined by more than 50% since 1990, rates for non-Hispanic black and American Indian/Alaska Native infants remain disproportionately higher than the rest of the population. Preventing SIDS remains an important public health priority.

For a medical examiner or coroner to determine the cause of the death, a thorough case investigation including examination of the death scene and a review of the infant’s clinical history must be conducted. A complete autopsy needs to be performed, ideally using information gathered from the scene investigation. Even when a thorough investigation is conducted, it may be difficult to separate SIDS from other types of sudden unexpected infant deaths, especially accidental suffocation in bed.

After a thorough case investigation, many of these sudden unexpected infant deaths may be explained. Poisoning, metabolic disorders, hyper or hypothermia, neglect and homicide, and suffocation are all explainable causes of SUID
SIDS  SUID  mortality  infant  cause  of  death  classification  definition  revision  CDC  suffocation  diagnostic  standard  subtype  graphic 
6 days ago by Michael.Massing
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Unclassified Sudden Infant Deaths: A Definitional and Diagnostic Approach | Special Articles | Pediatrics
The definition of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) originally appeared in 1969 and was modified 2 decades later. During the following 15 years, an enormous amount of additional information has emerged, justifying additional refinement of the definition of SIDS to incorporate epidemiologic features, risk factors, pathologic features, and ancillary test findings. An expert panel of pediatric and forensic pathologists and pediatricians considered these issues and developed a new general definition of SIDS for administrative and vital statistics purposes. The new definition was then stratified to facilitate research into sudden infant death. Another category, defined as unclassified sudden infant deaths, was introduced for cases that do not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of SIDS and for which alternative diagnoses of natural or unnatural conditions were equivocal. It is anticipated that these new definitions will be modified in the future to accommodate new understanding of SIDS and sudden infant death
SIDS  SUID  mortality  infant  cause  of  death  classification  definition  revision  AAP  American  Academy  Pediatrics  peer-reviewed  research  co-sleeping  citation  history 
6 days ago by Michael.Massing
Research and sudden infant death syndrome: definitions, diagnostic difficulties and discrepancies. - PubMed - NCBI
The diagnosis of causes of sudden infant death is an often complex and difficult process. Variable standards of autopsy practice and the use of different definitions for entities such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have also contributed to confusion and discrepancies. For example, the term SIDS has been used when the requirements of standard definitions have not been fulfilled. In an attempt to correct this situation recent initiatives have been undertaken to stratify cases of unexpected infant death and to institute protocols that provide frameworks for investigations. However, if research is to be meaningful, researchers must be scrupulous in assessing how extensively cases have been investigated and how closely cases fit with internationally recognized definitions and standards. Unless this approach is adopted, evaluation of research findings in SIDS will be difficult and the literature will continue to be beset by contradictions and unsubstantiated conclusions
SIDS  SUID  mortality  infant  cause  of  death  classification  definition  methodology  criticism  peer-reviewed  research  co-sleeping  citation 
6 days ago by Michael.Massing
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Unclassified Sudden Infant Deaths: A Definitional and Diagnostic Approach | Special Articles | Pediatrics
The definition of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) originally appeared in 1969 and was modified 2 decades later. During the following 15 years, an enormous amount of additional information has emerged, justifying additional refinement of the definition of SIDS to incorporate epidemiologic features, risk factors, pathologic features, and ancillary test findings. An expert panel of pediatric and forensic pathologists and pediatricians considered these issues and developed a new general definition of SIDS for administrative and vital statistics purposes. The new definition was then stratified to facilitate research into sudden infant death. Another category, defined as unclassified sudden infant deaths, was introduced for cases that do not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of SIDS and for which alternative diagnoses of natural or unnatural conditions were equivocal. It is anticipated that these new definitions will be modified in the future to accommodate new understanding of SIDS and sudden infant death.
SIDS  SUID  mortality  infant  cause  of  death  classification  definition  revision  AAP  American  Academy  Pediatrics  peer-reviewed  research  co-sleeping  citation  history 
6 days ago by Michael.Massing
What's the difference between a refugee and an asylum seeker?
Very short but useful definitions of refugee, migrant, asylum seeker, stateless person, etc.
asylum  refugee  migrant  resettlement  19plx  reference  definition 
8 days ago by csrollyson
What DevOps Really Means – Verifa – Medium
I’ve been working in technology throughout my career and have seen the software development space mature and evolve through a number of methodologies. Most of these ideas are common sense…
devops  intro  article  definition 
11 days ago by gilberto5757
Privacy is a commons | TechCrunch
“At least three problems, in fact.’ Those are:

The absence of privacy has a chilling effect on dissidence and individual thought. Private spaces are the experimental petri dishes for societies. No privacy means no experimentation with anything of which society disapproves, especially if it’s illegal. (Which, please note, in recent memory includes things like marijuana and homosexuality; there is a long, long history of “illegal today” becoming “acceptable tomorrow” as societies become less authoritarian.)
If privacy becomes a commodity, one that only the rich afford, then the rich can and will use this information asymmetry threaten and persecute people who challenge the status quo, thereby perpetuating it.
Accumulated private data can and probably will increasingly be used to manipulate public opinion on a massive scale. Sure, Cambridge Analytica were bullshit artists, but in the not-too-distant future, what they promised their clients could conceivably become reality. No less an authority than François Chollet has written ‘I’d like to raise awareness about what really worries me when it comes to AI: the highly effective, highly scalable manipulation of human behavior that AI enables, and its malicious use by corporations and governments.’”
privacy  commons  definition 
12 days ago by laurakalbag

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