deference   18

Neil Gorsuch takes his seat at the Supreme Court today - The Economist
When a provision of a congressional statute was ambiguous, he’d usually defer to the bureaucrats in the Federal Communications Commission or the Internal Revenue Service to read the law their way. This principle, so-called Chevron deference
scotus  deference  cheveron  gorsuch 
april 2017 by ilublo
Korean culture of forced deference
Actually no, if you are a Korean. Watching the exchange above, a majority of Korean netizens seemed to take the side of Lee, blaming Yewon for being disrespectful. Two cultural characteristics underlie how Koreans view this exchange. One, the concept of sunbae vs. hoobae. Normally, this is translated as senior vs. junior. However, this is a concept that doesn't lend itself to an easy translation. It's more of a cultural construct that has to be experienced in order to be understood. Basically, it's an unspoken but ubiquitous norm of behavior that stipulates that anyone younger, anyone who started working for the same company or began attending the same school later, or anyone who entered into a similar industry or profession more recently owes you certain, visible expression of deference. This norm applies whether you know the other person personally or not. In this construct, Lee is a "sunbae" to Yewon since both are celebrities, although Yewon started out as a singer and Lee is an a
korean  deference  korean  hierarchy  sonbae  hoobae  Lee  Tae-yim  yewon  korean  elitism  korean  neo-confucianism 
april 2015 by thegrandnarrative
Why Girls Get Better Grades Than Boys Do - The Atlantic
[My tweet: "“Why Girls Get Better Grades Than Boys Do” … Missing: Conscientiousness or deference? Innate or conditioned?"]

"This self-discipline edge for girls carries into middle-school and beyond. In a 2006 landmark study, Martin Seligman and Angela Lee Duckworth found that middle-school girls edge out boys in overall self-discipline. This contributes greatly to their better grades across all subjects. They found that girls are more adept at “reading test instructions before proceeding to the questions,” “paying attention to a teacher rather than daydreaming,” “choosing homework over TV,” and “persisting on long-term assignments despite boredom and frustration.” These top cognitive scientists from the University of Pennsylvania also found that girls are apt to start their homework earlier in the day than boys and spend almost double the amount of time completing it. Girls’ grade point averages across all subjects were higher than those of boys, even in basic and advanced math—which, again, are seen as traditional strongholds of boys.

What Drs. Seligman and Duckworth label “self-discipline,” other researchers name “conscientiousness.” Or, a predisposition to plan ahead, set goals, and persist in the face of frustrations and setbacks. Conscientiousness is uniformly considered by social scientists to be an inborn personality trait that is not evenly distributed across all humans. In fact, a host of cross-cultural studies show that females tend to be more conscientious than males. One such study by Lindsay Reddington out of Columbia University even found that female college students are far more likely than males to jot down detailed notes in class, transcribe what professors say more accurately, and remember lecture content better. Arguably, boys’ less developed conscientiousness leaves them at a disadvantage in school settings where grades heavily weight good organizational skills alongside demonstrations of acquired knowledge.

These days, the whole school experience seems to play right into most girls’ strengths—and most boys’ weaknesses. Gone are the days when you could blow off a series of homework assignments throughout the semester but pull through with a respectable grade by cramming for and acing that all-important mid-term exam. Getting good grades today is far more about keeping up with and producing quality homework—not to mention handing it in on time.

Gwen Kenney-Benson, a psychology professor at Allegheny College, a liberal arts institution in Pennsylvania, says that girls succeed over boys in school because they tend to be more mastery-oriented in their schoolwork habits. They are more apt to plan ahead, set academic goals, and put effort into achieving those goals. They also are more likely than boys to feel intrinsically satisfied with the whole enterprise of organizing their work, and more invested in impressing themselves and their teachers with their efforts.

On the whole, boys approach schoolwork differently. They are more performance-oriented. Studying for and taking tests taps into their competitive instincts. For many boys, tests are quests that get their hearts pounding. Doing well on them is a public demonstration of excellence and an occasion for a high-five. In contrast, Kenney-Benson and some fellow academics provide evidence that the stress many girls experience in test situations can artificially lower their performance, giving a false reading of their true abilities. These researchers arrive at the following overarching conclusion: “The testing situation may underestimate girls’ abilities, but the classroom may underestimate boys’ abilities.”

It is easy to for boys to feel alienated in an environment where homework and organization skills account for so much of their grades. But the educational tide may be turning in small ways that give boys more of a fighting chance. An example of this is what occurred several years ago at Ellis Middle School, in Austin, Minnesota. Teachers realized that a sizable chunk of kids who aced tests trundled along each year getting C’s, D’s, and F’s. At the same time, about 10 percent of the students who consistently obtained A’s and B’s did poorly on important tests. Grading policies were revamped and school officials smartly decided to furnish kids with two separate grades each semester. One grade was given for good work habits and citizenship, which they called a “life skills grade.” A “knowledge grade” was given based on average scores across important tests. Tests could be retaken at any point in the semester, provided a student was up to date on homework.

Staff at Ellis Middle School also stopped factoring homework into a kid’s grade. Homework was framed as practice for tests. Incomplete or tardy assignments were noted but didn’t lower a kid’s knowledge grade. The whole enterprise of severely downgrading kids for such transgressions as occasionally being late to class, blurting out answers, doodling instead of taking notes, having a messy backpack, poking the kid in front, or forgetting to have parents sign a permission slip for a class trip, was revamped.

This last point was of particular interest to me. On countless occasions, I have attended school meetings for boy clients of mine who are in an ADHD red-zone. I have learned to request a grade print-out in advance. Not uncommonly, there is a checkered history of radically different grades: A, A, A, B, B, F, F, A. When F grades and a resultant zero points are given for late or missing assignments, a student’s C grade does not reflect his academic performance. Since boys tend to be less conscientious than girls—more apt to space out and leave a completed assignment at home, more likely to fail to turn the page and complete the questions on the back—a distinct fairness issue comes into play when a boy’s occasional lapse results in a low grade. Sadly though, it appears that the overwhelming trend among teachers is to assign zero points for late work. In one survey by Conni Campbell, associate dean of the School of Education at Point Loma Nazarene University, 84 percent of teachers did just that.

Disaffected boys may also benefit from a boot camp on test-taking, time-management, and study habits. These core skills are not always picked up by osmosis in the classroom, or from diligent parents at home. Of course, addressing the learning gap between boys and girls will require parents, teachers and school administrators to talk more openly about the ways each gender approaches classroom learning—and that difference itself remains a tender topic."
gender  schools  boys  girls  education  homework  compliance  conscienciousness  angeladuckworth  2014  martinseligman  deference  authority  self-discipline  adhd  grades  grading  gwenkenney-benson  conditioning  goalsetting  persistence  lindsayreddington  connicampbell  disaffection  testtaking  timemanagement  studyhabits  learninggap  attention  distraction  academics  learning  howwelearn  howweteach  teaching  gendernorms  society  enricognaulati  assessment  standardization 
september 2014 by robertogreco
Daniel I. O'Neill - Burke on Democracy as the Death of Western Civilization | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Jan., 2004), pp. 201-225
This essay concerns Edmund Burke's view of the civilizing process. It begins by developing Burke's revision of Scottish Enlightenment historiography from the perspective of his own earlier treatise on aesthetics. Here, the argument is that Burke saw Western civilization as guaranteed by two institutions, the "sublime" church and the "beautiful" nobility, that jointly produced the requisite level of "habitual social discipline" in the masses necessary for the "natural aristocracy" to govern. The article's central argument is that Burke saw the Revolutionaries' destruction of these two institutions, and especially their subsequent attempt to replace them with political democracy undergirded by policies of social and cultural democratization, as marking the literal end of Western civilization itself. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  British_politics  French_Revolution  counter-revolution  Burke  Western_civ  aesthetics  sublime  Church_of_England  religion-established  religious_culture  nobility  aristocracy  aristocracy-natural  domination  hierarchy  social_order  deference  political_culture  governing_class  elites  democracy  political_participation  morality-conventional  moral_sentiments  Scottish_Enlightenment  civilizing_process  manners  politeness  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Neil Brody Miller - "Proper Subjects for Public Inquiry": The First Unitarian Controversy and the Transformation of Federalist Print Culture | JSTOR: Early American Literature, Vol. 43, No. 1 (2008), pp. 101-135
Lots of primary and secondary references - continues debate against seeing Jeffersonians as innovative in using press to expand public sphere and speak for common man but Federakists as reactive and manipulative for similar activity that in fact did more for wider public participation and voice -- episode also sets pattern for triumph of non-sectarian, Trinitarian, evangelical, bible and tract version of Christianity as public sphere religion -- didn't download
article  jstor  political_history  religious_history  public_sphere  18thC  19thC  Early_Republic  New_England  cultural_capital  cultural_authority  civic_virtue  public_opinion  political_participation  politics-and-religion  political_culture  religious_culture  republicanism  publishing  deference  consensus  anti-Trinitarian  Unitarian  Calvinist  Evangelical  religion-established  clergy  education-higher  Federalist  Jeffersonians  political_press  community  elites  elite_culture  cultural_critique  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Opinion analysis – “Pandora’s box” stays closed : SCOTUSblog May 2013
Monday’s opinion in City of Arlington v. FCC is surely destined for administrative law textbooks. One reason is that the Court at last resolved a longstanding dispute in the field: whether agencies are eligible for deference under Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. when interpreting the scope of their own so-called “jurisdiction.” The answer is yes; as Justice Scalia’s majority opinion explains, the distinction between jurisdictional questions and non-jurisdictional interpretations is “a mirage.” . . . Oral argument focused significantly on the puzzle of cordoning off “jurisdictional” questions from other questions of agency interpretation.
agency  jurisdiction  deference  Chevron  FCC  rules  v.  standards  SCOTUS  Arlington  v.  FCC  ex  SCOTUSblog 
november 2013 by pierredv
Abraham D. Kriegel: Liberty and Whiggery in Early Nineteenth-Century England (1980)
JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Jun., 1980), pp. 253-278 -- by end of 18thC Whigs had won the battle over defining that ambiguous event, the Glorious Revolution, and had claimed the uncontested mantle of champions of liberty. And in this sense Bolingbroke's claim of the Revolution belonging to both Whigs and Tories, regardless of what theory was used to jusify was indeed out Whigging the Whhigs. But "liberty" had some suspect origins (noble and corporate privileges) by early 19thC and very ambiguous applications, especially in connection with that other ambiguous term property. Some good stuff on particular 17thC and 18thC moments in evolution of political language.
article  jstor  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_politics  political_history  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  language-politics  Whigs  Grey_Lord  Fox_Charles_James  Reform_Act_1832  elections  suffrage  aristocracy  elites  landowners  landed_interest  liberty  property  commerce  middle_class  civil_liberties  constituencies  corruption  hierarchy  deference  downloaded  EF-add  English_constitution 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Sources of Violence
One of the ways individuals and societies have been shaped by unjust systems is in relation to violence. Violence is that which works to reduce our humanity. This may be physical force, but not all force is violent. It may be any form of coercion that forces one to adopt a position of power over another.
Violence is a dominant theme through both the Old Testament and the New Testament. But violence is not the last word even if much of Christian witness might lead us to believe that God’s violence is a moral and practical option.
In the Old Testament we often read of a wrathful even genocidal God: one minute sending in agents to destroy everything in a given area (Isaiah 13:15–18) and the next moment espousing love and showering the object of affection with gifts and blessings (Isaiah 14:1–2). In this concept of God, love and violence go hand in glove without a trace of irony (Psalm 136:10).
The prophets, to whom we turn for visions of justice, and mercy, are rarely any gentler than the Judges, Kings, and Psalmists. We have already heard from Isaiah’s God but Elisha’s temper and cruelty is hideous yet sanctioned by the divine. The comical brutality is narrated when Elisha was confronted by children calling him ‘Baldy’ and responded by getting God to set bears on them, murdering forty-two of them (2 Kings 2:23–24).
Equally, the New Testament has some difficult passages: St Paul is happy to hand believers to Satan for the destruction of their bodies (1 Corinthians 5:5); Jesus promises worse than fire and brimstone from above (Matthew 10:15). Meanwhile, in the Acts of the Apostles a financial vanity on the part of some new believers leads to their immediate execution directly by God (Acts 5:1–11). This is not the stuff of ‘gentle Jesus meek and mild’.
We need to understand what the motivators of violence are. Individually and collectively people act with great compassion and sacrifice but also with terrible inhumanity. It’s right that we ask ‘Why?’ Here are six potential sources of violence; perhaps you can think of others?
DeferenceFearHelplessnessWorldviewScapegoatingInhumanityDeferenceFirst let’s look at deference: our attitude to authority figures and our keenness to defer to them in all matters including those that guide our moral compass. Stanley Milgram, an American psychologist, wanted to know how far ordinary people would be willing to go beyond their usual moral limits, when deferring to an authority figure.
Milgram set up a simple yet profoundly significant experiment. Two people would face one another either side of a glass screen. One had tasks to teach the other and a panel of buttons. The second was attached to electrodes and had a few buttons to register the degree of pain felt. The second was, in fact, an actor and would pretend to be painfully shocked as the ‘teacher’ – the real subject of the experiment – pressed the buttons the teacher believed she or he increased the intensity of the shock each time the other person failed a test.
As the screams of anguish became more distressing, many people who took part would hesitate and yet they would press on past what they thought were dangerous levels of electric treatment because they were assured by an authority figure in a lab coat that they would not be held responsible.
Many of us have been taught from early years to discern right from wrong based on rewards and punishments. We become good people but our moral compass is external to us. We know when we are being good because we are being rewarded by an authority figure and we know when we are being bad because we feel like we have let down the person in charge and ultimately those who brought us up. I am not just talking about parents who smack here but rather all attempts to coerce people into being good instead of helping one another to connect with our own real needs and those of others.
Spirituality anchors the activist in recognition that the divine spark animates all creation, making responsibility personal and wellbeing corporate. A compassionate activist’s only authority is the One, referred to by St John as ‘Love’, who is discerned with humility and mutual aid. Any other authority needs to be held in permanent suspicion relative to this Love.
FearOur second source of violence is fear. Adrenalin and fear are important factors that can lead us to violence. Fear is rooted in anxiety about not having our basic needs met. This is ultimately a fear of dehumanization and death. Most of the time, preserving my own life is a useful instinct. But the ability to override that instinct with a trust that all life is held in God alters the control we have over our responses to danger radically. Those who lose their life will save it while those who save their own lives may lose their humanity.
The possibility of seeing beyond fight or flight into a third option of nonviolent resistance can be opened up with a disciplined rhythm of prayer in community. This is because doing the work of spiritual contemplation together changes us. Bringing our liturgical life into the public square – as we shall see in later chapters – turns our corporate contemplation into something new. Nothing changed my relationship to my community’s prayer book more than praying it in a police cell. Nothing changed my experience of the Psalms more than saying them in the shadow of a nuclear weapons factory. Nothing changed my experience of the book of Lamentations more than saying them in the city centre interspersed with the names of the casualties of war.
By understanding and speaking out our needs and by hearing with compassion the needs of others, we learn the source of both our fear and our love for others. The Bible allows the whole cacophony of voices room to speak: from the most powerful to the least. In hearing this rich heritage and all the voices of those whose needs remain unmet in our own time, we face up to fear in ourselves and in others. Perfect understanding leads us to perfect love and perfect love casts out all fear.
Silliness plays a part as well. As a ten-year-old I used to love fighting and would sometimes have to sneak into the house to wash off the blood. But as I got older so my fear grew. I will always remember the day I avoided a bloody exchange outside a pub when I was sixteen. A good friend and I had a disagreement over a girl we both liked. We were in a pub and worse for wear. What started out as a quiet argument was managed by the baying crowd into a stand-off on the pavement outside.
We stood opposite each other glaring; each daring the other to move forward and attack. We goaded each other as the crowd of our peers stood around shouting ‘Fight! Fight! Fight!…’ In a moment of sobriety I became more aware of the crowd than of my opponent. I realized I didn’t really want to fight but was now too afraid to back down. I knew the argument was unhelpful but the time for words seemed to have vanished. I needed somehow to diffuse the situation.
I still don’t quite know how it came to me: I unclenched my little fists and grabbed my own ears, making them stick out, while puffing up my cheeks and sticking out my tongue. It was my ‘Pob’ impression; I’ve since seen it in photos taken around the same time. My opposite number couldn’t help laughing, at which point we shook hands and he bought me a pint – much to the disappointment of the crowd who weren’t quite sure what had happened. Finding a way over the other side of fear often involves being creative and daring in ways that, aside from the moment of inspiration, is often hard to plan.
WorldviewWhat Walter Wink calls ‘the myth of redemptive violence’ is the commonly held belief, hugely invested in, that violence not only saves us but that it is an important measure of moral rightness. Our whole worldview is shaped by a belief in the myth of redemptive violence, which we often give in to, either in our thinking or on an emotional level. We act out of this belief when we act without stopping to ask ourselves which over-arching story of how the world works is guiding us. From children’s cartoon characters (Popeye, The Incredibles, Superman), to blockbusting films (Kung Fu Panda, X-Men), western culture has been saturated with the idea that those who win in battle are thus proven to be morally superior. The underlying belief is that the universe, or the divine, is inclined to favor the righteous in battle so you know whose side good/God is on by seeing who claims victory.
This belief has a number of antisocial effects. It inclines us only to listen to the victor’s version of history. There is an ancient African proverb: ‘Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter.’ This refusal to hear critical voices in relation to a conflict opens us up to the idea of conflict in the future. Those who are victorious make a moral claim on those who believe in the myth of redemptive violence: the world would be a worse place had they lost, according to their telling of the tale, and allegiance to them in the future is vital for keeping further evils at bay.
The worldview that violence saves us determines more of our actions than we might realize. From styles of parenting and leadership, through reward and punishment, to our seemingly instinctive desire to call the police who carry with them the constant threat of violence in order to protect our property and person, we rely daily on the availability of saving violence. Our taxes pay for the military; our parades and religions celebrate the honorable dead. We have a cult of the myth of redemptive violence that’s so all pervasive that, like most all-pervasive myths, we rarely notice its influence.
HelplessnessFor a couple of years I lived in East London. I loved the small community of social housing tower blocks we lived in. It had its challenges as most communities do. Communal bins were regularly set alight for a while and we would wake up in the night with our bedroom full of smoke, for example, or … [more]
essay  deference  fear  helplessness  inhumanity  nonviolence  scapegoating  violence  worldview  from google
february 2013 by davidmarsden
ZNet - Self-Emancipation By Steve D'Arcy | January 30, 2009,
from the page: "The bottom line, for elitist radicalism, is that the masses are not to be seen as a potential force for radical change, to be organized by a painstaking process of movement-building... Instead, the masses are best understood as a tool of reactionary politics.. Radicals cannot liberate others, but can only foster the emergence and strengthening of movements in which exploited and oppressed people work toward liberating themselves... Adopting the politics of self-emancipation implies a rejection, not just of the elitist radicalism... It also implies a rejection of any attempt by members of one group of people - regardless of how well-meaning they may be - to try to claim for themselves the right to lead a struggle for the emancipation of any other exploited and oppressed group of people. It implies, therefore, a certain sort of deference: a willingness to acknowledge the right of oppressed and exploited people to take the lead in the process of their own self-liberation."
marxism  anarchism  class  radicalism  intellectuals  elitist  self-emancipation  oppression  exploitation  movements  deference  well-meaning  women  feminism 
september 2009 by willowtrees

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