**consider:feature-discovery**251

Figuring out when you can do a puzzle. – Occupy Math

9 days ago by Vaguery

This week’s Occupy Math looks at a type of puzzle where you want to fill a rectangle with a shape. We will be using the L-shaped 3-square polyomino, used to fill a 5×9 rectangle below, as our example shape. The goal is to figure out every possible size of rectangle that can be filled with this shape. If you are constructing puzzles for other people — e.g., your students — knowing which problems can be solved gives you an edge. The post will not only solve the problem for our example shape, but also give you tools for doing this for other shapes. The answers, and the tools, are at the bottom if you don’t feel like working through the reasoning.

mathematical-recreations
polyominoes
proof
rather-interesting
nudge-targets
consider:classification
consider:feature-discovery
9 days ago by Vaguery

Kumaraswamy distribution: a beta-like probability density

8 weeks ago by Vaguery

Maybe the algorithm I suggested for picking parameters is not very good, but I suspect the optimal parameters are not much better. Rather than saying that the Kumaraswamy distribution approximates the beta distribution, I’d say that the Kumaraswamy distribution is capable of assuming roughly the same shapes as the beta distribution. If the only reason you’re using a beta distribution is to get a certain density shape, the Kumaraswamy distribution would be a reasonable alternative. But if you need to approximate a beta distribution closely, it may not work well enough.

probability-theory
representation
rather-interesting
to-write-about
consider:feature-discovery
consider:heuristics
consider:approximation
8 weeks ago by Vaguery

Exactly how bad is the 13 times table? | The Aperiodical

april 2018 by Vaguery

Along the way, OEIS editor Charles R Greathouse IV added this intriguing conjecture:

Conjecture: a(n)≤N

for all n

. Perhaps N

can be taken as 81

.

number-theory
mathematical-recreations
open-questions
to-write-about
consider:feature-discovery
Conjecture: a(n)≤N

for all n

. Perhaps N

can be taken as 81

.

april 2018 by Vaguery

[1709.04109] Empower Sequence Labeling with Task-Aware Neural Language Model

march 2018 by Vaguery

Linguistic sequence labeling is a general modeling approach that encompasses a variety of problems, such as part-of-speech tagging and named entity recognition. Recent advances in neural networks (NNs) make it possible to build reliable models without handcrafted features. However, in many cases, it is hard to obtain sufficient annotations to train these models. In this study, we develop a novel neural framework to extract abundant knowledge hidden in raw texts to empower the sequence labeling task. Besides word-level knowledge contained in pre-trained word embeddings, character-aware neural language models are incorporated to extract character-level knowledge. Transfer learning techniques are further adopted to mediate different components and guide the language model towards the key knowledge. Comparing to previous methods, these task-specific knowledge allows us to adopt a more concise model and conduct more efficient training. Different from most transfer learning methods, the proposed framework does not rely on any additional supervision. It extracts knowledge from self-contained order information of training sequences. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of leveraging character-level knowledge and the efficiency of co-training. For example, on the CoNLL03 NER task, model training completes in about 6 hours on a single GPU, reaching F1 score of 91.71±0.10 without using any extra annotation.

natural-language-processing
deep-learning
neural-networks
nudge-targets
consider:feature-discovery
consider:representation
to-write-about
march 2018 by Vaguery

Estimating barriers to gene flow from distorted isolation by distance patterns | bioRxiv

march 2018 by Vaguery

In continuous populations with local migration, nearby pairs of individuals have on average more similar genotypes than geographically well separated pairs. A barrier to gene flow distorts this classical pattern of isolation by distance. Genetic similarity is decreased for sample pairs on different sides of the barrier and increased for pairs on the same side near the barrier. Here, we introduce an inference scheme that utilizes this signal to detect and estimate the strength of a linear barrier to gene flow in two-dimensions. We use a diffusion approximation to model the effects of a barrier on the geographical spread of ancestry backwards in time. This approach allows us to calculate the chance of recent coalescence and probability of identity by descent. We introduce an inference scheme that fits these theoretical results to the geographical covariance structure of bialleleic genetic markers. It can estimate the strength of the barrier as well as several demographic parameters. We investigate the power of our inference scheme to detect barriers by applying it to a wide range of simulated data. We also showcase an example application to a Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) flower color hybrid zone, where we do not detect any signal of a strong genome wide barrier to gene flow.

population-biology
theoretical-biology
rather-interesting
simulation
to-write-about
consider:feature-discovery
march 2018 by Vaguery

[1712.08373] Notes on complexity of packing coloring

march 2018 by Vaguery

A packing k-coloring for some integer k of a graph G=(V,E) is a mapping

φ:V→{1,…,k} such that any two vertices u,v of color φ(u)=φ(v) are in distance at least φ(u)+1. This concept is motivated by frequency assignment problems. The \emph{packing chromatic number} of G is the smallest k such that there exists a packing k-coloring of G.

Fiala and Golovach showed that determining the packing chromatic number for chordal graphs is \NP-complete for diameter exactly 5. While the problem is easy to solve for diameter 2, we show \NP-completeness for any diameter at least 3. Our reduction also shows that the packing chromatic number is hard to approximate within n1/2−ε for any ε>0.

In addition, we design an \FPT algorithm for interval graphs of bounded diameter. This leads us to exploring the problem of finding a partial coloring that maximizes the number of colored vertices.

graph-theory
algorithms
combinatorics
proof
approximation
nudge-targets
consider:looking-to-see
consider:feature-discovery
φ:V→{1,…,k} such that any two vertices u,v of color φ(u)=φ(v) are in distance at least φ(u)+1. This concept is motivated by frequency assignment problems. The \emph{packing chromatic number} of G is the smallest k such that there exists a packing k-coloring of G.

Fiala and Golovach showed that determining the packing chromatic number for chordal graphs is \NP-complete for diameter exactly 5. While the problem is easy to solve for diameter 2, we show \NP-completeness for any diameter at least 3. Our reduction also shows that the packing chromatic number is hard to approximate within n1/2−ε for any ε>0.

In addition, we design an \FPT algorithm for interval graphs of bounded diameter. This leads us to exploring the problem of finding a partial coloring that maximizes the number of colored vertices.

march 2018 by Vaguery

[1710.02271] Unsupervised Extraction of Representative Concepts from Scientific Literature

february 2018 by Vaguery

This paper studies the automated categorization and extraction of scientific concepts from titles of scientific articles, in order to gain a deeper understanding of their key contributions and facilitate the construction of a generic academic knowledgebase. Towards this goal, we propose an unsupervised, domain-independent, and scalable two-phase algorithm to type and extract key concept mentions into aspects of interest (e.g., Techniques, Applications, etc.). In the first phase of our algorithm we propose PhraseType, a probabilistic generative model which exploits textual features and limited POS tags to broadly segment text snippets into aspect-typed phrases. We extend this model to simultaneously learn aspect-specific features and identify academic domains in multi-domain corpora, since the two tasks mutually enhance each other. In the second phase, we propose an approach based on adaptor grammars to extract fine grained concept mentions from the aspect-typed phrases without the need for any external resources or human effort, in a purely data-driven manner. We apply our technique to study literature from diverse scientific domains and show significant gains over state-of-the-art concept extraction techniques. We also present a qualitative analysis of the results obtained.

natural-language-processing
POS-tagging
algorithms
data-fusion
machine-learning
text-mining
nudge-targets
consider:feature-discovery
february 2018 by Vaguery

[1802.08435] Efficient Neural Audio Synthesis

february 2018 by Vaguery

Sequential models achieve state-of-the-art results in audio, visual and textual domains with respect to both estimating the data distribution and generating high-quality samples. Efficient sampling for this class of models has however remained an elusive problem. With a focus on text-to-speech synthesis, we describe a set of general techniques for reducing sampling time while maintaining high output quality. We first describe a single-layer recurrent neural network, the WaveRNN, with a dual softmax layer that matches the quality of the state-of-the-art WaveNet model. The compact form of the network makes it possible to generate 24kHz 16-bit audio 4x faster than real time on a GPU. Second, we apply a weight pruning technique to reduce the number of weights in the WaveRNN. We find that, for a constant number of parameters, large sparse networks perform better than small dense networks and this relationship holds for sparsity levels beyond 96%. The small number of weights in a Sparse WaveRNN makes it possible to sample high-fidelity audio on a mobile CPU in real time. Finally, we propose a new generation scheme based on subscaling that folds a long sequence into a batch of shorter sequences and allows one to generate multiple samples at once. The Subscale WaveRNN produces 16 samples per step without loss of quality and offers an orthogonal method for increasing sampling efficiency.

audio-synthesis
machine-learning
WaveNet
neural-networks
signal-processing
time-series
generative-models
to-write-about
nudge-targets
recurrent-networks
performance-measure
consider:feature-discovery
february 2018 by Vaguery

[1506.09039] Scalable Discrete Sampling as a Multi-Armed Bandit Problem

february 2018 by Vaguery

Drawing a sample from a discrete distribution is one of the building components for Monte Carlo methods. Like other sampling algorithms, discrete sampling suffers from the high computational burden in large-scale inference problems. We study the problem of sampling a discrete random variable with a high degree of dependency that is typical in large-scale Bayesian inference and graphical models, and propose an efficient approximate solution with a subsampling approach. We make a novel connection between the discrete sampling and Multi-Armed Bandits problems with a finite reward population and provide three algorithms with theoretical guarantees. Empirical evaluations show the robustness and efficiency of the approximate algorithms in both synthetic and real-world large-scale problems.

sampling
inverse-problems
rather-interesting
probability-theory
simulation
engineering-design
nudge-targets
consider:feature-discovery
february 2018 by Vaguery

[1707.05994] Computing Tutte Paths

january 2018 by Vaguery

Tutte paths are one of the most successful tools for attacking Hamiltonicity problems in planar graphs. Unfortunately, results based on them are non-constructive, as their proofs inherently use an induction on overlapping subgraphs and these overlaps hinder to bound the running time to a polynomial. For special cases however, computational results of Tutte paths are known: For 4-connected planar graphs, Tutte paths are in fact Hamiltonian paths and Chiba and Nishizeki showed how to compute such paths in linear time. For 3-connected planar graphs, Tutte paths have a more complicated structure, and it has only recently been shown that they can be computed in polynomial time. However, Tutte paths are defined for general 2-connected planar graphs and this is what most applications need. Unfortunately, no computational results are known. We give the first efficient algorithm that computes a Tutte path (for the general case of 2-connected planar graphs). One of the strongest existence results about such Tutte paths is due to Sanders, which allows to prescribe the end vertices and an intermediate edge of the desired path. Encompassing and strengthening all previous computational results on Tutte paths, we show how to compute this special Tutte path efficiently. Our method refines both, the results of Thomassen and Sanders, and avoids overlapping subgraphs by using a novel iterative decomposition along 2-separators. Finally, we show that our algorithm runs in quadratic time.

graph-theory
algorithms
representation
rather-interesting
to-understand
nudge-targets
consider:representation
consider:feature-discovery
january 2018 by Vaguery

[1710.04640] Hard and Easy Instances of L-Tromino Tilings

november 2017 by Vaguery

In this work we study tilings of regions in the square lattice with L-shaped trominoes. Deciding the existence of a tiling with L-trominoes for an arbitrary region in general is NP-complete, nonetheless, we indentify restrictions to the problem where either it remains NP-complete or it has a polynomial time algorithm. First we show that an aztec diamond of order n always has an L-tromino tiling if and only if n(n+1)≡0mod3; if an aztec diamond has at least two defects or holes, however, the problem of deciding a tiling is NP-complete. Then we study tilings of arbitrary regions where only 180∘ rotations of L-trominoes are available. For this particular case we show that deciding the existence of a tiling remains NP-complete, yet, if a region contains certain so-called "forbidden polyominoes" as subregions, then there exists a polynomial time algorithm for deciding a tiling.

polyominoes
tiling
benchmarking
rather-interesting
problem-solving
nudge-targets
consider:feature-discovery
updated
november 2017 by Vaguery

[1405.2378] Covering Folded Shapes

november 2017 by Vaguery

Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries S→R2). The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks), we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

computational-geometry
to-write
paper-folding
rather-interesting
nudge-targets
consider:algorithms
consider:feature-discovery
november 2017 by Vaguery

[1411.6371] Folding a Paper Strip to Minimize Thickness

november 2017 by Vaguery

In this paper, we study how to fold a specified origami crease pattern in order to minimize the impact of paper thickness. Specifically, origami designs are often expressed by a mountain-valley pattern (plane graph of creases with relative fold orientations), but in general this specification is consistent with exponentially many possible folded states. We analyze the complexity of finding the best consistent folded state according to two metrics: minimizing the total number of layers in the folded state (so that a "flat folding" is indeed close to flat), and minimizing the total amount of paper required to execute the folding (where "thicker" creases consume more paper). We prove both problems strongly NP-complete even for 1D folding. On the other hand, we prove the first problem fixed-parameter tractable in 1D with respect to the number of layers.

paper-folding
computational-geometry
optimization
rather-interesting
to-write-about
to-simulate
nudge-targets
consider:feature-discovery
november 2017 by Vaguery

[1501.00561] A linear-time algorithm for the geodesic center of a simple polygon

november 2017 by Vaguery

Given two points in a simple polygon P of n vertices, its geodesic distance is the length of the shortest path that connects them among all paths that stay within P. The geodesic center of P is the unique point in P that minimizes the largest geodesic distance to all other points of P. In 1989, Pollack, Sharir and Rote [Disc. \& Comput. Geom. 89] showed an O(nlogn)-time algorithm that computes the geodesic center of P. Since then, a longstanding question has been whether this running time can be improved (explicitly posed by Mitchell [Handbook of Computational Geometry, 2000]). In this paper we affirmatively answer this question and present a linear time algorithm to solve this problem.

computational-complexity
computational-geometry
optimization
rather-interesting
algorithms
distance
nudge-targets
consider:rediscovery
consider:feature-discovery
november 2017 by Vaguery

[1604.08797] Ortho-polygon Visibility Representations of Embedded Graphs

november 2017 by Vaguery

An ortho-polygon visibility representation of an n-vertex embedded graph G (OPVR of G) is an embedding-preserving drawing of G that maps every vertex to a distinct orthogonal polygon and each edge to a vertical or horizontal visibility between its end-vertices. The vertex complexity of an OPVR of G is the minimum k such that every polygon has at most k reflex corners. We present polynomial time algorithms that test whether G has an OPVR and, if so, compute one of minimum vertex complexity. We argue that the existence and the vertex complexity of an OPVR of G are related to its number of crossings per edge and to its connectivity. More precisely, we prove that if G has at most one crossing per edge (i.e., G is a 1-plane graph), an OPVR of G always exists while this may not be the case if two crossings per edge are allowed. Also, if G is a 3-connected 1-plane graph, we can compute an OPVR of G whose vertex complexity is bounded by a constant in O(n) time. However, if G is a 2-connected 1-plane graph, the vertex complexity of any OPVR of G may be Ω(n). In contrast, we describe a family of 2-connected 1-plane graphs for which an embedding that guarantees constant vertex complexity can be computed in O(n) time. Finally, we present the results of an experimental study on the vertex complexity of ortho-polygon visibility representations of 1-plane graphs.

graph-layout
computational-geometry
optimization
rather-interesting
to-write-about
nudge-targets
consider:representation
consider:feature-discovery
algorithms
computational-complexity
november 2017 by Vaguery

[1609.06972] Minimal completely asymmetric (4,n)-regular matchstick graphs

october 2017 by Vaguery

A matchstick graph is a graph drawn with straight edges in the plane such that the edges have unit length, and non-adjacent edges do not intersect. We call a matchstick graph $(m,n)$-regular if every vertex has only degree $m$ or $n$. In this article we present the latest known $(4,n)$-regular matchstick graphs for $4\leq n\leq11$ with a minimum number of vertices and a completely asymmetric structure. We call a matchstick graph completely asymmetric, if the following conditions are complied. 1) The graph is rigid. 2) The graph has no point, rotational or mirror symmetry. 3) The graph has an asymmetric outer shape. 4) The graph can not be decomposed into rigid subgraphs and rearrange to a similar graph which contradicts to any of the other conditions.

computational-geometry
graph-theory
rather-interesting
purdy-pitchers
to-write-about
nudge-targets
consider:looking-to-see
consider:feature-discovery
october 2017 by Vaguery

[1512.03421] The extended 1-perfect trades in small hypercubes

october 2017 by Vaguery

An extended 1-perfect trade is a pair (T0,T1) of two disjoint binary distance-4 even-weight codes such that the set of words at distance 1 from T0 coincides with the set of words at distance 1 from T1. Such trade is called primary if any pair of proper subsets of T0 and T1 is not a trade. Using a computer-aided approach, we classify nonequivalent primary extended 1-perfect trades of length 10, constant-weight extended 1-perfect trades of length 12, and Steiner trades derived from them. In particular, all Steiner trades with parameters (5,6,12) are classified.

combinatorics
to-understand
graph-theory
strings
optimization
constraint-satisfaction
looking-to-see
nudge-targets
consider:looking-to-see
consider:classification
consider:feature-discovery
october 2017 by Vaguery

[1006.4176] Unknotting Unknots

october 2017 by Vaguery

A knot is an an embedding of a circle into three-dimensional space. We say that a knot is unknotted if there is an ambient isotopy of the embedding to a standard circle. By representing knots via planar diagrams, we discuss the problem of unknotting a knot diagram when we know that it is unknotted. This problem is surprisingly difficult, since it has been shown that knot diagrams may need to be made more complicated before they may be simplified. We do not yet know, however, how much more complicated they must get. We give an introduction to the work of Dynnikov who discovered the key use of arc--presentations to solve the problem of finding a way to detect the unknot directly from a diagram of the knot. Using Dynnikov's work, we show how to obtain a quadratic upper bound for the number of crossings that must be introduced into a sequence of unknotting moves. We also apply Dynnikov's results to find an upper bound for the number of moves required in an unknotting sequence.

knot-theory
rather-interesting
representation
algorithms
classification
nudge-targets
consider:looking-to-see
consider:feature-discovery
october 2017 by Vaguery

[1605.08396] Robust Downbeat Tracking Using an Ensemble of Convolutional Networks

october 2017 by Vaguery

In this paper, we present a novel state of the art system for automatic downbeat tracking from music signals. The audio signal is first segmented in frames which are synchronized at the tatum level of the music. We then extract different kind of features based on harmony, melody, rhythm and bass content to feed convolutional neural networks that are adapted to take advantage of each feature characteristics. This ensemble of neural networks is combined to obtain one downbeat likelihood per tatum. The downbeat sequence is finally decoded with a flexible and efficient temporal model which takes advantage of the metrical continuity of a song. We then perform an evaluation of our system on a large base of 9 datasets, compare its performance to 4 other published algorithms and obtain a significant increase of 16.8 percent points compared to the second best system, for altogether a moderate cost in test and training. The influence of each step of the method is studied to show its strengths and shortcomings.

neural-networks
music
deep-learning
rather-interesting
to-write-about
nudge-targets
consider:feature-discovery
october 2017 by Vaguery

[cs/0302027] Tiling space and slabs with acute tetrahedra

october 2017 by Vaguery

We show it is possible to tile three-dimensional space using only tetrahedra with acute dihedral angles. We present several constructions to achieve this, including one in which all dihedral angles are less than 77.08∘, and another which tiles a slab in space.

computational-geometry
tiling
rather-interesting
constraint-satisfaction
nudge-targets
consider:feature-discovery
consider:simpler-planar-problem
october 2017 by Vaguery

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