consensus   1340

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gives Ethereum smart contracts a computational boost. Don't let Ethereum's gas limit drag your imagination! A novel incentive structure guarantees fast, reliable, and affordable results without third-party trust.
Consensus  blockchain  economics 
yesterday by Z303
Distributed Consensus Middleware
Consensus  blockchain 
yesterday by Z303
Seamless Paxos Coordinators
The Paxos algorithm requires a single correct coordinator process to operate. After a failure, the replacement of the coordinator may lead to a temporary unavailability of the application implemented atop Paxos. So far, this unavailability has been addressed by reducing the coordinator replacement rate through the use of stable coordinator selection algorithms. We have observed that the cost of recovery of the newly elected coordinator's state is at the core of this unavailability problem. In this paper we present a new technique to manage coordinator replacement that allows the recovery to occur concurrently with new consensus rounds. Experimental results show that our seamless approach effectively solves the temporary unavailability problem, its adoption entails uninterrupted execution of the application. Our solution removes the restriction that the occurrence of coordinator replacements is something to be avoided, allowing the decoupling of the application execution from the accuracy of the mechanism used to choose a coordinator. This result increases the performance of the application even in the presence of failures, it is of special importance to the autonomous operation of replicated applications that have to adapt to varying network conditions and partial failures.
paxos  consensus  protocol 
2 days ago by mpm
Quillette -- Wilfrid Laurier and the Creep of Critical Theory by Uri Harris
Comment: Alastair Roberts: '...I fear that the gender dimension that you mention in the context of the shift to the left is an important part of the picture. The shifts that you are describing are, I suspect in large part, the result of a movement from institutions built by and around men and their norms to institutions built around women in particular. This is obviously an awkward reality to talk about and a phenomenon that proves deeply inconvenient for a society theoretically committed to egalitarianism. A few things to notice: -- #1. Male and female groups generally have different ways of dealing with conflict and competition. Female intrasexual competition tends to be indirect and works by manufacturing and maintaining a social consensus, freezing out and stigmatizing people who threaten it, and appealing to third parties to intervene against them. Male intrasexual competition tends to be much more direct and overt. The stifling of free speech we are witnessing in universities today follows classic forms of female competition: excluding opposing viewpoints through no-platforming, surrounding issues with a human shield, appeal to officials and other third parties to intervene on their behalf, etc. -- #2. Men and women have different tendencies in discourse. Male speech tends to be more agonistic and combative. Male speech tends to follow models of manliness. The manly man is expected to be strong in putting forward his position, masterful in arguing it and taking apart opposing arguments, courageous in putting his position in jeopardy in debate and taking whatever comes, and honourable in never avoiding or shrinking back from direct challenge or employing indirect means to win in an underhand fashion. But women often disproportionately struggle with such norms; for instance, with the expectation that public discourse is a place where you must fight your corner and push your position, rather than a table open to all voices to put forward their positions equally and unchallenged. Public discourse as a realm of stress-testing ideas and engaging with views that directly attack your own can be threatening to people who prefer forms of discourse where everyone gets an equal say, where direct conflict is not really accepted within the group, and where people expect to be affirmed. -- #3. Male society typically plays to strength. Male society tends to function to toughen its members up and expects them to rise to the challenges thrown in their direction. Those who are weaker are expected to get out of the way if they can’t handle the force of the challenge, to allow the strongest to play to their strength. Female sociality, by contrast, can be much more protective, affirming, and nurturing, accommodating itself to weakness. Furthermore, when men are around women, they tend to become protective. -- #4. Female society tends to produce a queen bee effect: people are more likely to gather around female leaders, but behind male ones. The female leader is treated protectively and an attack upon a leading woman is perceived as an attack upon the group, while the male leader tends to stand or fall more by himself. -- ... #6. Male sociality allows for much more of a distinction between ideas and persons. Ritual combat functions as a form of bonding, or at least a context for deepening respect, between men to a degree that it doesn’t usually for women. Directly to challenge someone else’s opinion in a female group is much less likely to go down well, as the idea and the person are much more closely aligned (observe the difference between the comments of male- and female-dominated sites online for examples of this). -- These differences can be seen in a great many areas. Male sociality has always tended to value free speech and challenge in ways that female sociality hasn’t and men as individuals also consistently seem to care more about this value (this is one of the reasons why the New Atheist movement was always so strongly male, and why it has so widely turned into an anti-SJW movement). When informal societies develop organically, free and direct speech tends to be far more characteristic of male-dominated groups. While there are many women who love combative discourse and sociality and many men who don’t, these are the exceptions to the rule. Furthermore, the women who love combative discourse and sociality will generally have to go to male-dominated groups to enjoy it. It is not at all surprising that the crisis of free speech in the university finds its centre of gravity in fields such as Women’s and Gender Studies. -- The shift in culture arises from a number of different factors. Part of it is a demographic shift in universities and other leading cultural institutions, with women starting to become numerous in formerly male-dominated institutions. The culture of such institutions will tend to weaken and then shift with these demographic changes. Part of it is also the rise of social media, which allows for a radical scaling of the dynamics of female intrasexual competition and its use of the group to pressure people into a consensus.'
men  women  competition  cooperation  consensus  illiberalism  discourse 
19 days ago by adamcrowe

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