condensed_matter   17

Unveiling the Active Nature of Living-Membrane Fluctuations and Mechanics | Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics
"Soft-condensed matter physics has provided, in the past decades, many of the relevant concepts and methods allowing successful description of living cells and biological tissues. This recent quantitative physical description of biological systems has profoundly advanced our understanding of life, which is shifting from a descriptive to a predictive level. Like other active materials investigated in condensed matter physics, biological materials still pose great challenges to modern physics as they form a specific class of nonequilibrium systems. Actively driven membranes have been studied for more than two decades, taking advantage of rapid progress in membrane physics and in the experimental development of reconstituted active membranes. The physical description of activity within living biological membranes remains, however, a key challenge that animates a dynamic research community, bringing together physicists and biologists. Here, we first review the past two decades of experimental and theoretical advances that enabled the characterization of mechanical properties and nonequilibrium fluctuations in active membranes. We distinguish active processes originating from membrane proteins or from external interactions, such as cytoskeletal forces. Then, we focus on the emblematic case of red blood cell flickering, the active origin of which has been debated for decades until recently. We finally close this review by discussing future challenges in this ever more interdisciplinary field."
to:NB  biophysics  condensed_matter  physics  non-equilibrium 
8 weeks ago by cshalizi
Simulating powder x-ray diffraction in Python with Pymatgen and Xrayutilities. | CompMatSci
Instructions on how to generate a realistic x-ray powder diffraction plot for a given material structure
physics  crystallography  simulation  condensed_matter 
december 2018 by jkglasbrenner
NOMAD Repository
Resource for storing scientific data, including outputs from DFT calculations.
condensed_matter  Physics  Databases  science  electronic_structure 
april 2018 by jkglasbrenner
aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/
New version of what was formally the NRL crystal database
condensed_matter  Databases  crystallography  aflow 
june 2017 by jkglasbrenner
Liquid Crystals: The Science and Art of a Fluid Form, Leslie
"While it is responsible for today’s abundance of flat screens—on televisions, computers, and mobile devices—most of us have only heard of it in the ubiquitous acronym, LCD, with little thought as to exactly what it is: liquid crystal. In this book, Esther Leslie enlightens us, offering an accessible and fascinating look at—not a substance, not a technology—but a wholly different phase of matter."
            As she explains, liquid crystal is a curious material phase that organizes a substance’s molecules in a crystalline form yet allows them to move fluidly like water. Observed since the nineteenth century, this phase has been a deep curiosity to science and, in more recent times, the key to a new era of media technology. In between that time, as Leslie shows, it has figured in cultural forms from Romantic landscape painting to snow globes, from mountaineering to eco-disasters, and from touchscreen devices to DNA. Expertly written but accessible, Liquid Crystals recounts the unheralded but hugely significant emergence of this unique form of matter.
to:NB  books:noted  liquid_crystals  physics  popular_science  condensed_matter 
june 2017 by cshalizi
Liquid Crystals: The Science and Art of a Fluid Form, Leslie
"While it is responsible for today’s abundance of flat screens—on televisions, computers, and mobile devices—most of us have only heard of it in the ubiquitous acronym, LCD, with little thought as to exactly what it is: liquid crystal. In this book, Esther Leslie enlightens us, offering an accessible and fascinating look at—not a substance, not a technology—but a wholly different phase of matter.
"As she explains, liquid crystal is a curious material phase that organizes a substance’s molecules in a crystalline form yet allows them to move fluidly like water. Observed since the nineteenth century, this phase has been a deep curiosity to science and, in more recent times, the key to a new era of media technology. In between that time, as Leslie shows, it has figured in cultural forms from Romantic landscape painting to snow globes, from mountaineering to eco-disasters, and from touchscreen devices to DNA. Expertly written but accessible, Liquid Crystals recounts the unheralded but hugely significant emergence of this unique form of matter."
to:NB  books:noted  condensed_matter  liquid_crystals  physics  popular_science 
january 2017 by cshalizi
Sensitive Matter — Michel Mitov | Harvard University Press
"Life would not exist without sensitive, or soft, matter. All biological structures depend on it, including red blood globules, lung fluid, and membranes. So do industrial emulsions, gels, plastics, liquid crystals, and granular materials. What makes sensitive matter so fascinating is its inherent versatility. Shape-shifting at the slightest provocation, whether a change in composition or environment, it leads a fugitive existence.
"Physicist Michel Mitov brings drama to molecular gastronomy (as when two irreconcilable materials are mixed to achieve the miracle of mayonnaise) and offers answers to everyday questions, such as how does paint dry on canvas, why does shampoo foam better when you “repeat,” and what allows for the controlled release of drugs? Along the way we meet a futurist cook, a scientist with a runaway imagination, and a penniless inventor named Goodyear who added sulfur to latex, quite possibly by accident, and created durable rubber.
"As Mitov demonstrates, even religious ritual is a lesson in the surprising science of sensitive matter. Thrice yearly, the reliquary of St. Januarius is carried down cobblestone streets from the Cathedral to the Church of St. Clare in Naples. If all goes as hoped—and since 1389 it often has—the dried blood contained in the reliquary’s largest vial liquefies on reaching its destination, and Neapolitans are given a reaffirming symbol of renewal."
in_NB  books:noted  physics  condensed_matter  popular_science 
august 2015 by cshalizi

related tags

aflow  alloys  amorphous_solids  applied_physics  atat  biophysics  books:noted  cluster_expansion  computational_science  crystallography  crystals  databases  dft  electromagnetism  electronic_structure  gpu  grants  high-performance_computing  in_nb  interdisciplinary  liquid_crystals  materials  materials_science  methods  modeling  non-equilibrium  physics  popular_science  programming  python  reference  science  simulation  snow  snowflakes  software  superconductivity  superconductors  temperature  textbooks  tight-binding  to:nb  track_down_references  virginia 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: