composition-decomposition   46

[1804.04268] Incomplete Contracting and AI Alignment
We suggest that the analysis of incomplete contracting developed by law and economics researchers can provide a useful framework for understanding the AI alignment problem and help to generate a systematic approach to finding solutions. We first provide an overview of the incomplete contracting literature and explore parallels between this work and the problem of AI alignment. As we emphasize, misalignment between principal and agent is a core focus of economic analysis. We highlight some technical results from the economics literature on incomplete contracts that may provide insights for AI alignment researchers. Our core contribution, however, is to bring to bear an insight that economists have been urged to absorb from legal scholars and other behavioral scientists: the fact that human contracting is supported by substantial amounts of external structure, such as generally available institutions (culture, law) that can supply implied terms to fill the gaps in incomplete contracts. We propose a research agenda for AI alignment work that focuses on the problem of how to build AI that can replicate the human cognitive processes that connect individual incomplete contracts with this supporting external structure.
nibble  preprint  org:mat  papers  ai  ai-control  alignment  coordination  contracts  law  economics  interests  culture  institutions  number  context  behavioral-econ  composition-decomposition  rent-seeking  whole-partial-many 
8 weeks ago by nhaliday
Society of Mind - Wikipedia
A core tenet of Minsky's philosophy is that "minds are what brains do". The society of mind theory views the human mind and any other naturally evolved cognitive systems as a vast society of individually simple processes known as agents. These processes are the fundamental thinking entities from which minds are built, and together produce the many abilities we attribute to minds. The great power in viewing a mind as a society of agents, as opposed to the consequence of some basic principle or some simple formal system, is that different agents can be based on different types of processes with different purposes, ways of representing knowledge, and methods for producing results.

This idea is perhaps best summarized by the following quote:

What magical trick makes us intelligent? The trick is that there is no trick. The power of intelligence stems from our vast diversity, not from any single, perfect principle. —Marvin Minsky, The Society of Mind, p. 308

The modular organization of human anatomical
brain networks: Accounting for the cost of wiring:
Brain networks are expected to be modular. However, existing techniques for estimating a network’s modules make it difficult to assess the influence of organizational principles such as wiring cost reduction on the detected modules. Here we present a modification of an existing module detection algorithm that allowed us to focus on connections that are unexpected under a cost-reduction wiring rule and to identify modules from among these connections. We applied this technique to anatomical brain networks and showed that the modules we detected differ from those detected using the standard technique. We demonstrated that these novel modules are spatially distributed, exhibit unique functional fingerprints, and overlap considerably with rich clubs, giving rise to an alternative and complementary interpretation of the functional roles of specific brain regions. Finally, we demonstrated that, using the modified module detection approach, we can detect modules in a developmental dataset that track normative patterns of maturation. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that brain networks are composed of modules and provide additional insight into the function of those modules.
books  ideas  speculation  structure  composition-decomposition  complex-systems  neuro  ai  psychology  cog-psych  intelligence  reduction  wiki  giants  philosophy  number  cohesion  diversity  systematic-ad-hoc  detail-architecture  pdf  study  neuro-nitgrit  brain-scan  nitty-gritty  network-structure  graphs  graph-theory  models  whole-partial-many  evopsych  eden  reference  psych-architecture  article 
10 weeks ago by nhaliday
What are the Laws of Biology?
The core finding of systems biology is that only a very small subset of possible network motifs is actually used and that these motifs recur in all kinds of different systems, from transcriptional to biochemical to neural networks. This is because only those arrangements of interactions effectively perform some useful operation, which underlies some necessary function at a cellular or organismal level. There are different arrangements for input summation, input comparison, integration over time, high-pass or low-pass filtering, negative auto-regulation, coincidence detection, periodic oscillation, bistability, rapid onset response, rapid offset response, turning a graded signal into a sharp pulse or boundary, and so on, and so on.

These are all familiar concepts and designs in engineering and computing, with well-known properties. In living organisms there is one other general property that the designs must satisfy: robustness. They have to work with noisy components, at a scale that’s highly susceptible to thermal noise and environmental perturbations. Of the subset of designs that perform some operation, only a much smaller subset will do it robustly enough to be useful in a living organism. That is, they can still perform their particular functions in the face of noisy or fluctuating inputs or variation in the number of components constituting the elements of the network itself.
scitariat  reflection  proposal  ideas  thinking  conceptual-vocab  lens  bio  complex-systems  selection  evolution  flux-stasis  network-structure  structure  composition-decomposition  IEEE  robust  signal-noise  perturbation  interdisciplinary  graphs  circuits  🌞  big-picture  hi-order-bits  nibble  synthesis 
november 2017 by nhaliday
multivariate analysis - Is it possible to have a pair of Gaussian random variables for which the joint distribution is not Gaussian? - Cross Validated
The bivariate normal distribution is the exception, not the rule!

It is important to recognize that "almost all" joint distributions with normal marginals are not the bivariate normal distribution. That is, the common viewpoint that joint distributions with normal marginals that are not the bivariate normal are somehow "pathological", is a bit misguided.

Certainly, the multivariate normal is extremely important due to its stability under linear transformations, and so receives the bulk of attention in applications.

note: there is a multivariate central limit theorem, so those such applications have no problem
nibble  q-n-a  overflow  stats  math  acm  probability  distribution  gotchas  intricacy  characterization  structure  composition-decomposition  counterexample  limits  concentration-of-measure 
october 2017 by nhaliday
Genetic influences on measures of the environment: a systematic review | Psychological Medicine | Cambridge Core
Background. Traditional models of psychiatric epidemiology often assume that the relationship between individuals and their environment is unidirectional, from environment to person. Accumulating evidence from developmental and genetic studies has made this perspective increasingly untenable.

Results. We identified 55 independent studies organized into seven categories: general and specific stressful life events (SLEs), parenting as reported by child, parenting reported by parent, family environment, social support, peer interactions, and marital quality. Thirty-five environmental measures in these categories were examined by at least two studies and produced weighted heritability estimates ranging from 7% to 39%, with most falling between 15% and 35%. The weighted heritability for all environmental measures in all studies was 27%. The weighted heritability for environmental measures by rating method was: self-report 29%, informant report 26%, and direct rater or videotape observation (typically examining 10 min of behavior) 14%.
study  meta-analysis  biodet  behavioral-gen  genetics  population-genetics  🌞  regularizer  environmental-effects  GxE  psychiatry  epidemiology  composition-decomposition 
october 2017 by nhaliday
design patterns - What is MVC, really? - Software Engineering Stack Exchange
The model manages fundamental behaviors and data of the application. It can respond to requests for information, respond to instructions to change the state of its information, and even to notify observers in event-driven systems when information changes. This could be a database, or any number of data structures or storage systems. In short, it is the data and data-management of the application.

The view effectively provides the user interface element of the application. It'll render data from the model into a form that is suitable for the user interface.

The controller receives user input and makes calls to model objects and the view to perform appropriate actions.


Though this answer has 21 upvotes, I find the sentence "This could be a database, or any number of data structures or storage systems. (tl;dr : it's the data and data-management of the application)" horrible. The model is the pure business/domain logic. And this can and should be so much more than data management of an application. I also differentiate between domain logic and application logic. A controller should not ever contain business/domain logic or talk to a database directly.
q-n-a  stackex  explanation  concept  conceptual-vocab  structure  composition-decomposition  programming  engineering  best-practices  pragmatic  jargon  thinking  metabuch  working-stiff  tech  🖥  checklists 
october 2017 by nhaliday
Why are children in the same family so different from one another? - PubMed - NCBI
- Plomin et al

The article has three goals: (1) To describe quantitative genetic methods and research that lead to the conclusion that nonshared environment is responsible for most environmental variation relevant to psychological development, (2) to discuss specific nonshared environmental influences that have been studied to date, and (3) to consider relationships between nonshared environmental influences and behavioral differences between children in the same family. The reason for presenting this article in BBS is to draw attention to the far-reaching implications of finding that psychologically relevant environmental influences make children in a family different from, not similar to, one another.
study  essay  article  survey  spearhead  psychology  social-psych  biodet  behavioral-gen  🌞  methodology  environmental-effects  signal-noise  systematic-ad-hoc  composition-decomposition  pdf  piracy  volo-avolo  developmental  iq  cog-psych  variance-components  GxE  nonlinearity  twin-study  personality  sib-study 
october 2017 by nhaliday
Peter Turchin Catalonia Independence Drive: a Case-Study in Applied Cultural Evolution - Peter Turchin
The theoretically interesting question is what is the optimal size of a politically independent unit (“polity”) in today’s world. Clearly, optimal size changes with time and social environment. We know empirically that the optimal size of a European state took a step up following 1500. As a result, the number of independent polities in Europe decreased from many hundreds in 1500 to just over 30 in 1900. The reason was the introduction of gunpowder that greatly elevated war intensity. The new evolutionary regime eliminated almost all of the small states, apart from a few special cases (like the Papacy or Monaco).

In today’s Europe, however, war has ceased to be an evolutionary force. It may change, but since 1945 the success or failure of European polities has been largely determined by their ability to deliver high levels of living standards to their citizens. Economics is not the only aspect of well-being, but let’s focus on it here because it is clearly the main driver behind Catalonian independence (since culturally and linguistically Catalonia has been given a free rein within Spain).


This is applied cultural evolution. We can have lots of theories and models about the optimal polity size, but they are worthless without data.

And it’s much more than a scientific issue. The only way for our societies to become better in all kinds of ways (wealthier, more just, more efficient) is to allow cultural evolution a free rein. More specifically, we need cultural group selection at the level of polities. A major problem for the humanity is finding ways to have such cultural group selection to take place without violence. Which is why I find the current moves by Madrid to suppress the Catalonian independence vote by force criminally reckless. It seems that Madrid still wants to go back to the world as it was in the nineteenth century (or more accurately, Europe between 1500 and 1900).

A World of 1,000 Nations:

Brief note on Catalonia:
This could be just another footnote in a history book, or an opening passage in the chapter that explains how you got an explosion in the number of states that began around 2017.

Nationalism, Liberalism and the European Paradox:
Imagine for a moment that an ethnic group declared a referendum of independence in an Asian country and the nation state in question promptly sought to take the act of rebellion down. Imagine that in the ensuing chaos over 800 people were injured in a brutal police crackdown. Imagine the international disgust if this had happened in Asia, or the Middle East, or Latin America, or even in parts of Eastern and Central Europe. There would be calls for interventions, the topic would be urgently raised at the Security Council —and there might even be talks of sanctions or the arming of moderate rebels.

Of course, nothing of that sort happened as the Spanish state declared the Catalonian independence referendum a farce.


Remarkably, EU officials have largely remained mute. France’s new great hope, Monsieur Macron has sheepishly supported Spain’s “constitutional unity,” which is weasel-speak for national sovereignty—a concept which is so often dismissed by the very same European nations if it happens immediately outside the geographical region of EU. And this attitude towards nationalism—that it is archaic and obsolete on the one hand, but vitally important on the other—is the core paradox, and, some would say, hypocrisy, that has been laid bare by this sudden outbreak of tension.

It is a hypocrisy because one could argue that since the collapse of the Soviet Union, there has been a consistent and very real attempt to undermine sovereignty in many different parts of the world. To be fair, this has been done with mostly good intentions in the name of institutionalism and global governance, the “responsibility to protect” and universal human rights. With history in the Hegelian sense seemingly over after the collapse of the Berlin Wall, nationalism and great power politics were thought to be a thing of the past—a quaint absurdity—an irrelevance and a barrier to true Enlightenment. But unfortunately history does tend to have a sardonic sense of humour.

The entire European project was built on two fundamentally different ideas. One that promotes economic welfare based on borderless free trade, the free market and social individualism. And the other, promoting a centralized hierarchy, an elite in loco parentis which makes decisions about how many calories one should consume, what plastic one should import, and what gross picture of shredded lungs one should see on the front of a cigarette packet. It endorses sovereignty when it means rule by democracy and the protection of human rights, but not when countries decide to control their borders or their individual monetary and economic policies. Over time, defending these contradictions has become increasingly difficult, with cynical onlookers accusing technocrats of defending an unjustifiable and arbitrary set of principles.

All of this has resulted in three things. Regional ethnic groups in Europe have seen the examples of ethnic groups abroad undermining their own national governments, and they have picked up on these lessons. They also possess the same revolutionary technology—Twitter and the iPhone. Secondly, as Westphalian nation-states have been undermined repeatedly by borderless technocrats, identity movements based on ethnicity have begun to rise up. Humans, tribal at their very core, will always give in to the urge of having a cohesive social group to join, and a flag to wave high. And finally, there really is no logical counterargument to Catalans or Scots wanting to break apart from one union while staying in another. If ultimately, everything is going to be dictated by a handful of liege-lords in Brussels—why even obey the middle-man in Madrid or London?
Spain should have either forcibly assimilated Catalonia as France did with its foreign regions, or established a formal federation of states
ah those are the premodern and modern methods. The postmodern method is to bring in lots of immigrants (who will vote against separation)
turchin  broad-econ  commentary  current-events  europe  mediterranean  exit-voice  politics  polisci  anthropology  cultural-dynamics  scale  homo-hetero  density  composition-decomposition  increase-decrease  shift  geography  cohesion  multi  ratty  unaffiliated  leviathan  civil-liberty  universalism-particularism  institutions  government  group-selection  natural-experiment  conquest-empire  decentralized  EU  the-great-west-whale  hypocrisy  nationalism-globalism  news  org:mag  org:popup  whiggish-hegelian  elite  vampire-squid  managerial-state  anarcho-tyranny  tribalism  us-them  self-interest  ethnocentrism  prudence  rhetoric  ideology  zeitgeist  competition  latin-america  race  demographics  pop-structure  gnon  data  visualization  maps  history  early-modern  mostly-modern  time-series  twitter  social  discussion  backup  scitariat  rant  migration  modernity 
october 2017 by nhaliday

related tags

:/  aaronson  abstraction  accuracy  acm  acmtariat  adversarial  africa  age-generation  aging  ai-control  ai  alesina  algebra  algebraic-complexity  algorithms  alignment  altruism  analogy  analysis  analytical-holistic  anarcho-tyranny  anthropology  arrows  article  asia  atoms  attention  authoritarianism  autism  axelrod  backup  behavioral-econ  behavioral-gen  best-practices  better-explained  big-peeps  big-picture  bio  biodet  bioinformatics  bits  books  brain-scan  britain  broad-econ  calculation  cancer  capital  capitalism  cardio  career  causation  characterization  chart  cheatsheet  checklists  china  christianity  circuits  civic  civil-liberty  cjones-like  clarity  class  classification  closure  cocktail  coding-theory  cog-psych  cohesion  cold-war  collaboration  commentary  communism  comparison  compensation  competition  complex-systems  complexity  computation  computer-vision  concentration-of-measure  concept  conceptual-vocab  confounding  conquest-empire  context  contracts  contrarianism  convexity-curvature  cooperate-defect  coordination  correlation  cost-benefit  counter-revolution  counterexample  critique  cultural-dynamics  culture  current-events  curvature  cybernetics  cycles  data-science  data  database  debate  decentralized  decision-making  decision-theory  deep-learning  deep-materialism  definition  degrees-of-freedom  demographics  dennett  density  descriptive  detail-architecture  developing-world  developmental  dimensionality  direct-indirect  discipline  discussion  disease  distribution  divergence  diversity  dropbox  early-modern  econ-metrics  econ-productivity  economics  econotariat  eden  education  effect-size  efficiency  egalitarianism-hierarchy  elite  embodied  emergent  emotion  empirical  ems  endo-exo  endogenous-exogenous  energy-resources  engineering  enlightenment-renaissance-restoration-reformation  entropy-like  environmental-effects  envy  epidemiology  epigenetics  error  essay  ethics  ethnocentrism  eu  europe  evolution  evopsych  examples  exit-voice  expanders  explanans  explanation  exploratory  exposition  extratricky  extrema  farmers-and-foragers  features  field-study  fields  fluid  flux-stasis  food  formal-values  forms-instances  fourier  frequency  frontier  futurism  games  garett-jones  gender-diff  gender  gene-drift  general-survey  generalization  genetic-correlation  genetics  genomics  geography  germanic  giants  gnon  gotchas  government  gradient-descent  graph-theory  graphs  gregory-clark  ground-up  group-selection  growth-econ  gt-101  gwas  gwern  gxe  hanson  hardness  hardware  hari-seldon  harvard  hi-order-bits  higher-ed  history  hive-mind  hmm  homo-hetero  honor  hsu  human-capital  hypocrisy  ideas  identity-politics  identity  ideology  idk  ieee  immune  increase-decrease  india  industrial-revolution  inequality  info-dynamics  info-econ  information-theory  innovation  input-output  insight  institutions  integrity  intelligence  interdisciplinary  interests  interpretability  intervention  intricacy  intuition  iq  iron-age  ising  iteration-recursion  japan  jargon  justice  labor  latin-america  law  lecture-notes  legacy  len:long  len:short  lens  lesswrong  let-me-see  levers  leviathan  lifts-projections  limits  linear-algebra  list  local-global  long-short-run  long-term  longevity  lower-bounds  machine-learning  macro  madisonian  magnitude  male-variability  malthus  managerial-state  map-territory  maps  markets  markov  math.ds  math  matrix-factorization  measure  measurement  mechanics  medicine  mediterranean  mena  meta-analysis  metabuch  metameta  methodology  metrics  micro  microfoundations  migration  minimalism  missing-heritability  model-class  models  modernity  moments  morality  mostly-modern  motivation  multi  mutation  n-factor  nationalism-globalism  natural-experiment  network-structure  neuro-nitgrit  neuro  neurons  new-religion  news  nibble  nitty-gritty  no-go  nonlinearity  novelty  number  obesity  objektbuch  occam  off-convex  oly  open-closed  optimization  order-disorder  org:bleg  org:edu  org:mag  org:mat  org:nat  org:ngo  org:popup  organizing  oscillation  overflow  p:someday  papers  parenting  parsimony  patience  pdf  peace-violence  percolation  personality  perturbation  phalanges  philosophy  phys-energy  physics  pic  piracy  planning  plots  polisci  politics  poll  pop-structure  population-genetics  population  power-law  pragmatic  prediction  preprint  probability  problem-solving  programming  proofs  properties  proposal  prudence  pseudoe  psych-architecture  psychiatry  psychology  psychometrics  public-goodish  public-health  putnam-like  puzzles  q-n-a  qtl  quantitative-qualitative  questions  race  random  rant  ratty  reading  realness  rec-math  reduction  reference  reflection  regularization  regularizer  religion  rent-seeking  research  review  rhetoric  robust  roots  russia  s-factor  s:*  sapiens  scale  scaling-up  science  scitariat  search  selection  self-interest  sequential  series  sex  shift  sib-study  siggraph  signal-noise  slides  soccer  social-capital  social-norms  social-psych  social-science  social  society  sociology  space  spatial  spearhead  speculation  speedometer  sports  ssc  stackex  stagnation  stat-power  state-of-art  stats  status  street-fighting  stress  structure  study  stylized-facts  success  summary  supply-demand  survey  symmetry  synthesis  systematic-ad-hoc  tcs  tcstariat  tech  technology  techtariat  temperature  the-classics  the-great-west-whale  the-self  the-trenches  thermo  things  thinking  time-preference  time-series  time  todo  top-n  trade  tradeoffs  trends  tribalism  tricki  trivia  trust  turchin  twin-study  twitter  unaffiliated  unintended-consequences  unit  universalism-particularism  unsupervised  urban-rural  us-them  usa  values  vampire-squid  variance-components  visual-understanding  visualization  visuo  volo-avolo  walls  waves  wealth-of-nations  wealth  whiggish-hegelian  white-paper  whole-partial-many  wiki  within-without  working-stiff  world  yoga  yvain  zeitgeist  🌞  🎩  👳  🖥 

Copy this bookmark: