business_practices   78

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Management as a Technology?
Nicholas Bloom, Raffaella Sadun, John Van Reenen
NBER Working Paper No. 22327
Issued in June 2016
NBER Program(s):   CF   DEV   EFG   IO   LS   PR
Are some management practices akin to a technology that can explain company and national productivity, or do they simply reflect contingent management styles? We collect data on core management practices from over 11,000 firms in 34 countries. We find large cross-country differences in the adoption of basic management practices, with the US having the highest size-weighted average management score. We present a formal model of “Management as a Technology”, and structurally estimate it using panel data to recover parameters including the depreciation rate and adjustment costs of managerial capital (both found to be larger than for tangible non-managerial capital). Our model also predicts (i) a positive effect of management on firm performance; (ii) a positive relationship between product market competition and average management quality (part of which stems from the larger covariance between management with firm size as competition strengthens); and (iii) a rise (fall) in the level (dispersion) of management with firm age. We find strong empirical support for all of these predictions in our data. Finally, building on our model, we find that differences in management practices account for about 30% of cross-country total factor productivity differences.
competition  NBER  business_practices  paper  productivity  management 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Mary Hallward-Driemeier and Lant Pritchett - How Business Is Done in the Developing World: Deals versus Rules(2015) | AEAweb: Journal of Economic Perspectives, 29(3): 121-40
Affiliations World Bank and Harvard - What happens in the developing world when stringent regulations characterizing the investment climate meet weak government willingness or capability to enforce those regulations? How is business actually done? The Doing Business project surveys experts concerning the legally required time and costs of regulatory compliance for various aspects of private enterprise—starting a firm, dealing with construction permits, trading across borders, paying taxes, getting credit, enforcing contracts, and so on—around the world. The World Bank's firm-level Enterprise Surveys around the world ask managers at a wide array of firms about their business, including questions about how long it took to go through various processes like obtaining an operating license or a construction permit, or bringing in imports. This paper compares the results of three broadly comparable indicators from the Doing Business and Enterprise Surveys. Overall, we find that the estimate of legally required time for firms to complete a certain legal and regulatory process provided by the Doing Business survey does not summarize even modestly well the experience of firms as reported by the Enterprise Surveys. When strict de jure regulation and high rates of taxation meet weak governmental capabilities for implementation and enforcement, we argue that researchers and policymakers should stop thinking about regulations as creating "rules" to be followed, but rather as creating a space in which "deals" of various kinds are possible. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  development  institutional_economics  institutional_capacity  regulation  regulation-enforcement  regulation-costs  SMEs  World_Bank  doing_business  business_practices  business-norms  business_influence  investment  business-and-politics  business-ethics  FDI  investor_protection  downloaded 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
VOX ebook -The Age of Global Value Chains: Maps and Policy Issues | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal -July 2015
João Amador, Filippo di Mauro -- Global value chains (GVCs) - referring to the cross-border flows of goods, investment, services, know-how and people associated with international production networks - have transformed the world. Their emergence has resulted in a complete reconfiguration of world trade, bearing a strong impact on the assessment of competitiveness and economic policy. The contributions to this eBook are based on research carried out within the scope of the Eurosystem Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet), bringing together participants from EU national central banks, universities and international organisations interested in competitiveness issues. The mapping of GVCs and full awareness about their implications are essential to informed public debate and improved economic policy.-- downloaded pdf to Note
books  global_economy  cross-border  globalization  supply_chains  global_value_chains  economic_sociology  trade-policy  competitiveness  competition-interstate  manufacturing  transport  transaction_costs  tax_policy  business_practices  business_processes  economic_policy  development  development-impact  labor_standards  Labor_markets  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
The Influence of Stock Market Listing on Human Resource Management: Evidence for France and Britain by Neil Conway, Simon Deakin, Suzanne J. Konzelmann, Héloïse Petit, Antoine Reberioux, Frank Wilkinson :: SSRN - British Journal of Industrial Relations,
Neil Conway, Birkbeck College -- Simon Deakin, Cambridge - Centre for Business Research; European Corporate Governance Institute; Cambridge - Faculty of Law -- Suzanne J. Konzelmann, Birkbeck College - Social Sciences, School of Management and Organizational Psychology; Cambridge - Social and Political Sciences -- Héloïse Petit -- Antoine Reberioux, Université Paris VII Denis Diderot; University Antilles Guyane - Law and Economics -' Frank Wilkinson, Birkbeck College -- We use data from the Relations Professionnelles et Négociations d'Entreprise survey of 2004 and the Workplace Employment Relations Survey of 2004 to analyse how far approaches to human resource management differ according to whether an establishment is part of a company with a stock exchange listing. In both countries we find that listing is positively associated with teamworking and performance-related pay, while in France, but not in Britain, it is also linked to worker autonomy and training. Our findings are inconsistent with the claim that shareholder pressure operates as a constraint on the adoption of high-performance workplace practices. The pattern is similar in the two countries, but with a slightly stronger tendency for listing to be associated with high-performance workplace practices in France. -- PDF File: 43 -- paywall but a working paper version on SSRN -- didn't download
article  SSRN  UK_economy  France  business_practices  labor  workforce  corporate_governance  corporate_finance  capital_markets 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Suzanne J. Konzelmann, Marc Fovargue-Davies - Anglo-Saxon Capitalism in Crisis? Models of Liberal Capitalism and the Preconditions for Financial Stability :: SSRN (rev'd September 2011) Cambridge Centre for Business Research Working Paper No. 422
Suzanne J. Konzelmann, Birkbeck College - Social Sciences, School of Management and Organizational Psychology; Cambridge - Social and Political Sciences -- Marc Fovargue-Davies, U of London - The London Centre for Corporate Governance & Ethics -- The return to economic liberalism in the Anglo-Saxon world was motivated by the apparent failure of Keynesian economic management to control the stagflation of the 1970s and early 1980s. In this context, the theories of economic liberalism, championed by Friederich von Hayek, Milton Friedman and the Chicago School economists, provided an alternative. However, the divergent experience of the US, UK, Canada and Australia reveals two distinct ‘varieties’ of economic liberalism: the ‘neo-classical’ incarnation, which describes American and British liberal capitalism, and the more ‘balanced’ economic liberalism that evolved in Canada and Australia. In large part, these were a product of the way that liberal economic theory was understood and translated into policy, which in turn shaped the evolving relationship between the state and the private sector and the relative position of the financial sector within the broader economic system. Together, these determined the nature and extent of financial market regulation and the system’s relative stability during the 2008 crisis. -- PDF File: 61 -- Keywords: Corporate governance, Regulation, Financial market instability, Liberal capitalism, Varieties of capitalism -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  economic_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  US_politics  UK_politics  political_economy  political_culture  ideology  neoliberalism  economic_theory  economic_sociology  business_practices  business-and-politics  business-norms  business_influence  Keynesianism  neoclassical_economics  Austrian_economics  Chicago_School  capitalism-systemic_crisis  capitalism-varieties  corporate_governance  corporate_finance  capital_markets  capital_as_power  financialization  finance_capital  financial_regulation  Great_Recession  financial_crisis  policymaking  trickle-down  Canada  Australia  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Sustainable development: Report of UN Working Group on business and human rights - June 2015
Sustainable development: UN expert group calls for accountability of public and private sectors -- GENEVA (16 June 2015) – The United Nations Working Group on business and human rights today urged the UN system and all its member states to make globalization inclusive and aligned with human rights, and called for full accountability of public and private sectors’ activities in that regard. The expert’s call comes as a number of key international negotiations are taking place on sustainable development goals for the world, development financing and the climate change, as well as a number of policy talks on trade, finance and investment. -- downloaded pdf to Note
report  UN  human_rights  business_practices  business-norms  business-ethics  FDI  investment-socially_responsible  investor-State_disputes  investment-bilateral_treaties  supply_chains  sustainability  global_governance  global_economy  public_goods  public_health  public-private_partnerships  NGOs  civil_society  accountability  international_law  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
The Misrepresentation of Earnings by Ilia D. Dichev, John R. Graham, Campbell R. Harvey, Shivaram Rajgopal :: SSRN June 2, 2015
Ilia D. Dichev, Emory University - Goizueta Business School -- John R. Graham, Duke University; NBER -- Campbell R. Harvey, Duke University - Fuqua School of Business; NBER -- Shivaram Rajgopal, Emory University - Goizueta Business School -- We ask nearly 400 CFOs about the definition and drivers of earnings quality, with a special emphasis on the prevalence and detection of earnings misrepresentation. CFOs believe that the hallmarks of earnings quality are sustainability, absence of one-time items, and backing by actual cash flows. Earnings quality is determined in about equal measure by controllable factors like internal controls and corporate governance, and non-controllable factors like industry membership and macroeconomic conditions. On earnings misrepresentation, CFOs believe that in any given period a remarkable 20% of firms intentionally distort earnings, even though they are adhering to generally accepted accounting principles. The economic magnitude of the misrepresentation is large, averaging about 10% of reported earnings. While most misrepresentation involves earnings overstatement, interestingly, one third of the firms that are misrepresenting performance are low-balling their earnings or reversing a prior intentional overstatement. Finally, CFOs provide a list of red flags that can be used to detect earnings misrepresentation. --"PDF File: 23 -- saved to briefcase
paper  SSRN  financial_system  financial_regulation  capital_markets  disclosure  accounting  GAAP  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  business_practices  business-norms  business-ethics  market_manipulation  markets-psychology  profits  investors  investor_protection  incentives-distortions 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Margaret Blair - What must corporate directors do? Maximizing shareholder value versus creating value through team production | Brookings Institution - June 2015
Blair reviews the legal and economic theories behind the share-value maximization norm, and then lays out a theory of corporate law building on the economics of team production. Arguing that the corporate form itself helps solve the team production problem, Blair details five features which distinguish corporations from other organizational forms: 1. Legal personality -- 2. Limited liability -- 3. Transferable shares -- 4. Management under a Board of Directors -- 5. Indefinite existence -- Blair concludes that these five characteristics are all problematic from a principal-agent point of view where shareholders are principals. However, the team production theory makes sense out of these arrangements. This theory provides a rationale for the role of corporate directors consistent with the role that boards of directors historically understood themselves to play: balancing competing interests so the whole organization stays productive. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  business_practices  shareholder_value  hedge_funds  corporate_law  firms-theory  firms-structure  equity-corporate  equity_markets  investors  long-term_orientation  labor_share  cooperation  coordination  teams  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Andrew W. Lo - The Gordon Gekko Effect: The Role of Culture in the Financial Industry | NBER June 2015
NBER Working Paper No. 21267 -- Culture is a potent force in shaping individual and group behavior, yet it has received scant attention in the context of financial risk management and the recent financial crisis. I present a brief overview of the role of culture according to psychologists, sociologists, and economists, and then present a specific framework for analyzing culture in the context of financial practices and institutions in which three questions are answered: (1) What is culture?; (2) Does it matter?; and (3) Can it be changed? I illustrate the utility of this framework by applying it to five concrete situations—Long Term Capital Management; AIG Financial Products; Lehman Brothers and Repo 105; Société Générale’s rogue trader; and the SEC and the Madoff Ponzi scheme—and conclude with a proposal to change culture via “behavioral risk management.” -- check SSRN
paper  paywall  SSRN  financial_instiutions  business_practices  business-norms  risk_management  economic_culture  financial_crisis  financial_regulation  incentives  incentives-distortions  social_psychology  economic_sociology  firms-structure  firms-organization 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Georges Gloukoviezoff - Les banques face à leurs clients: Salariés de banque et inclusion bancaire | La Vie des idées - 28 janvier 2013
English translation March 2014 -- http://www.booksandideas.net/When-French-Banks-Encounter-their.html -- Most banks have now abandoned their previous function of providing advice. Instead, they view their services as products designed to maximize profits. They have started invoking the client’s autonomy as a way of passing on the risk of financial exclusion to their customers. In what ways have bank employees reacted to these new circumstances? -- Georges Gloukoviezoff est docteur en économie et spécialiste des questions d’inclusion financière des particuliers. Il est membre de l’Observatoire national de la pauvreté et de l’exclusion sociale. Il a publié en octobre 2010 aux Presses Universitaires de France "L’Exclusion bancaire. Le Lien social à l’épreuve de la rentabilité". Il tient également un blog sur la page d’Alternatives Economiques. -- downloaded French version as pdf to Note
article  France  financial_system  banking  access_to_finance  access_to_services  labor  labor-service_sector  consumer_protection  risk_management  risk_shifting  knowledge_economy  knowledge_workers  financial_innovation  advisory_services  business_practices  business-norms  profit  profit_maximization  financial_regulation  customer_relations  exclusion  exclusion-economic  economic_sociology  poverty  workforce  know-how  services  services-worker_autonomy  managerialism  productivity  incentives-distortions  consumer-know-how  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Frédérique Leblanc , review essay - The FNAC: A Story of Standardization - Books & ideas - 5 January 2011
Reviewed: Vincent Chabault, La FNAC, entre commerce et culture, Paris, Puf, 2010. 272p., 25 €. -- What traces remain of the two individuals, both former Trotskyites, who founded the FNAC in 1954? What role did the FNAC play in the commodification of culture, and what remains of the company’s original mission? Who are the company’s employees, and under what conditions do they work? Vincent Chabault’s recent book retraces the history of this company, which has received as much high praise over the years as virulent criticism. Two sets of questions have been asked. First, how was the company able to “absorb” changes in the business environment, and at what cost to its original mission? Secondly, what working at the FNAC has meant to two generations of the firm’s employees? -- interesting on growth of the culturally middle class in the post-war period, -- as in the US with growth, stagnation and polarization of what were originally knowledge worker jobs strongly attached to the firm with significant worker autonomy and internal advancement into "management" and disengaged interchangeable low paid low skilled staff
books  reviews  20thC  social_history  France  business_practices  labor  middle_class  economic_culture  culture_industries  firms-organization  business-norms  business_history  unions 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Xavier Giroud, Holger M. Mueller - Firm Leverage and Unemployment during the Great Recession | NBER April 2015
NBER Working Paper No. 21076 -- We argue that firms’ balance sheets were instrumental in the propagation of shocks during the Great Recession. Using establishment-level data, we show that firms that tightened their debt capacity in the run-up (“high-leverage firms”) exhibit a significantly larger decline in employment in response to household demand shocks than firms that freed up debt capacity (“low-leverage firms”). In fact, all of the job losses associated with falling house prices during the Great Recession are concentrated among establishments of high-leverage firms. At the county level, we find that counties with a larger fraction of establishments belonging to high-leverage firms exhibit a significantly larger decline in employment in response to household demand shocks. Thus, firms’ balance sheets also matter for aggregate employment. -- paywall
housing  economic_shocks-propagation  macroeconomics  paper  Great_Recession  NBER  demand-side  business_cycles  paywall  financial_crisis  corporate_finance  networks-business  business_practices  economic_models  unemployment  leverage 
may 2015 by Werderbach
Xavier Giroud, Holger M. Mueller - Firm Leverage and Unemployment during the Great Recession | NBER April 2015
NBER Working Paper No. 21076 -- We argue that firms’ balance sheets were instrumental in the propagation of shocks during the Great Recession. Using establishment-level data, we show that firms that tightened their debt capacity in the run-up (“high-leverage firms”) exhibit a significantly larger decline in employment in response to household demand shocks than firms that freed up debt capacity (“low-leverage firms”). In fact, all of the job losses associated with falling house prices during the Great Recession are concentrated among establishments of high-leverage firms. At the county level, we find that counties with a larger fraction of establishments belonging to high-leverage firms exhibit a significantly larger decline in employment in response to household demand shocks. Thus, firms’ balance sheets also matter for aggregate employment. -- paywall
paper  paywall  NBER  Great_Recession  financial_crisis  corporate_finance  leverage  unemployment  macroeconomics  economic_models  economic_shocks-propagation  networks-business  demand-side  housing  business_practices  business_cycles 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Steve Perlstein - Social Capital, Corporate Purpose, and the Revival of American Capitalism | Brookings Institution - January 2014
Since the Great Recession of 2008, corporate profits have more than rebounded, and yet the rest of the American economy has struggled to recover. Widening income inequality and an erosion of social capital and economic trust has deprived capitalism of its moral high ground. The public has lost confidence in big businesses--asking what purpose they serve in society writ large. Pearlstein argues we can begin to restoring the economic and moral legitimacy of American capitalism by reconsidering the purpose of corporations in American life. Despite the current dominance of the theory of “maximizing shareholder value,” this idea has little basis in history or law. Shifting to a more balanced form of capitalism will take time, but some possible steps for reform include: #-# Support investment funds dedicated to long-term horizons, including socially responsible investment funds #-# Recalibrate corporate governance law to allow for more flexible decision making #-# Rebalance capital gains taxes to encourage long-term stock holding by investors #-# Explore regulatory options for financial services, like a financial transaction tax to dampen the influence of short-term trading #-# Encourage a wider range of corporate metrics beyond quarterly earnings guidance #-# Reform shareholder voting rights to foster a sense of stewardship -- didn't download it -- Brookings also has video of Perlstein in Charlie Rose
paper  video  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  business_practices  corporate_finance  corporate_law  corporate_tax  financial_crisis  investors  institutional_investors  shareholder_value  capital_markets  shareholder_voting  capital_gains  financial_transaction_tax  short-termism  capitalism  capitalism-systemic_crisis 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Kathleen Perkins Miller, George Serafeim - Chief Sustainability Officers: Who Are They and What Do They Do? (revised September 2014) :: SSRN
Kathleen Perkins Miller, Miller Consultants -- George Serafeim, Harvard University - Harvard Business School *--* Chapter 8 in Leading Sustainable Change, Oxford University Press, 2014 *--* While a number of studies document that organizations go through numerous stages as they increase their commitment to sustainability over time, we know little about the role of the Chief Sustainability Officer (CSO) in this process. Using survey and interview data we analyze how a CSO’s authority and responsibilities differ across organizations that are in different stages of sustainability commitment. We document increasing organizational authority of the CSO as organizations increase their commitment to sustainability moving from Compliance to Efficiency and then to Innovation. However, we also document a decentralization of decision rights from the CSO to different functions, largely driven by sustainability strategies becoming more idiosyncratic at the Innovation stage. The study concludes with a discussion of practices that CSOs argue to accelerate the commitment of organizations to sustainability. -- Pages in PDF File: 22 -- Keywords: sustainability, organizational change, Chief Sustainability Officer, innovation, -- downloaded pdf to Note
chapter  SSRN  business_practices  business-norms  CSR  sustainability  firms-organization  firms-structure  Innovation  corporate_governance  accountability  institutional_change  institutional_capacity  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Robert G. Eccles, Jock Herron, George Serafeim - Reliable Sustainability Ratings: The Influence of Business Models on Information Intermediaries (revised October 2014) :: SSRN
ility Ratings: The Influence of Business Models on Information Intermediaries

Robert G. Eccles, Harvard Business School -- Jock Herron, Harvard University - School of Design -- George Serafeim, Harvard University - Harvard Business School -- Chapter in Routledge Handbook on Responsible Investing (Forthcoming) *--* A new generation of corporate reporting - integrated reporting - is emerging that will help investors and other key stakeholders such as employees, customers, suppliers, and NGOs develop a deeper and more comprehensive appreciation of corporate performance than what is currently provided by GAAP financial reporting. The purpose of this paper is to examine the optimal design of information intermediaries that can increase the impact of sustainability information on corporate conduct. Specifically, we focus on two issues: who pays for the information and which performance metrics should be included in assessing the sustainability performance of a company. -- Pages in PDF File: 28 -- Keywords: sustainability, ratings, corporate performance, rating agencies, conflicts of interest, integrated reporting, corporate social responsibility -- downloaded pdf to Note
chapter  SSRN  CSR  sustainability  accounting  disclosure  disclosure-integrated  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  business_practices  information-markets  information-intermediaries  rating_agencies  ratings  conflict_of_interest  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Robert G. Eccles, George Serafeim - Corporate and Integrated Reporting: A Functional Perspective (revised September 2014) :: SSRN
Robert G. Eccles, Harvard Business School -- George Serafeim, Harvard University - Harvard Business School *--* Chapter in Stewardship of the Future, edited by Ed Lawler, Sue Mohrman, and James O’Toole, Greenleaf, 2015. *--* In this paper, we present the two primary functions of corporate reporting (information and transformation) and why currently isolated financial and sustainability reporting are not likely to perform effectively those functions. We describe the concept of integrated reporting and why integrated reporting could be a superior mechanism to perform these functions. Moreover, we discuss, through a series of case studies, what constitutes an effective integrated report (Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company) and the role of regulation in integrated reporting (Anglo-American). -- Pages in PDF File: 21 -- Keywords: corporate reporting, integrated reporting, information, investing, sustainability, accounting -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  CSR  sustainability  accounting  disclosure  disclosure-integrated  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  business_practices  information-markets  investors  risk_management  institutional_change  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
George Serafeim - The Role of the Corporation in Society: An Alternative View and Opportunities for Future Research b(revised June 2014) :: SSRN
Harvard University - Harvard Business School *--* A long-standing ideology in business education has been that a corporation is run for the sole interest of its shareholders. I present an alternative view where increasing concentration of economic activity and power in the world’s largest corporations, the Global 1000, has opened the way for managers to consider the interests of a broader set of stakeholders rather than only shareholders. Having documented that this alternative view better fits actual corporate conduct, I discuss opportunities for future research. Specifically, I call for research on the materiality of environmental and social issues for the future financial performance of corporations, the design of incentive and control systems to guide strategy execution, corporate reporting, and the role of investors in this new paradigm. -- Pages in PDF File: 27 -- Keywords: corporate performance, corporate size, sustainability, corporate social responsibility, accounting -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  global_economy  global_governance  international_political_economy  shareholder_value  shareholders  CSR  disclosure  accountability  accounting  institutional_economics  institutional_investors  incentives  institutional_change  long-term_orientation  business-and-politics  business-norms  business_practices  business_influence  sustainability  MNCs  firms-theory  firms-structure  firms-organization  power  power-concentration  concentration-industry  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader

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