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Gender Wars
Have you ever wondered why women and men tend to act differently? According to Dr. Gregory L. Janz, it all comes down to brain chemistry.
gender  market  research  brain  chemistry  psychology  neuroscience  men  women 
yesterday by Adventure_Web
If You Get the Chills From Music, You May Have a Unique Brain
Neuroscience News has recent neuroscience research articles, brain research news, neurology studies and neuroscience resources for neuroscientists, students, and science fans and is always free to join. Our neuroscience social network has science groups, discussion forums, free books, resources, science videos and more.
brain  emotion  music  neuroscience  study 
yesterday by sfriedenberg
Beyond the waistline: the impact of sugar and fat on your brain | World Economic Forum
A lot of research has been conducted to establish the risks that a high energy diet – high in saturated fat and sugar – poses to our health. The most common known results of such diets include obesity, heart disease and diabetes, but research suggests that a diet high in fat and sugar can also have a significant impact on our cognition – the way we learn, remember, and think.
Back in 2010, Scott Kanoski, assistant professor of biological sciences at Perdue University in the US, showed that as little as three days of a diet that is high in saturated fat and sugar was enough to change cognition in rats.
During the research, rats were fed either a high energy diet or one that was nutritionally balanced, and had to learn where to find the food while inside a maze. After only three days, the rats on the high energy diet were less able to find the food rewards than those that had been given the nutrient-balanced diet. They didn’t gain any weight, which suggests the damaging effects of a high energy diet are more than the production of excess body fat – it also affected their brains.
health  diet  brain 
yesterday by rgl7194
How your coffee habit could help fight dementia | World Economic Forum
Caffeine—and 23 other compounds—may have the potential to boost the power of an enzyme in the brain shown to protect against dementia, according to a study with mice.
“This work could help advance efforts to develop drugs that increase levels of this enzyme in the brain, creating a chemical ‘blockade’ against the debilitating effects of neurodegenerative disorders,” says Hui-Chen Lu, professor of psychological and brain sciences at Indiana University.
Previously, Lu and colleagues found that the enzyme, called NMNAT2, plays two roles in the brain: a protective function to guard neurons from stress and a “chaperone function” to combat misfolded proteins called tau, which accumulate in the brain as “plaques” due to aging. That study was the first to reveal the “chaperone function” in the enzyme.
coffee  health  alzheimers  brain 
yesterday by rgl7194
Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the brain: a report of long-term survival following multimodal treatment and sequential use of targeted agents - Urological Science
The prognosis of renal cell carcinoma with brain metastasis is generally poor. Here we report a case of a 56-year-old man with metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the brain who underwent metastasectomy, cytoreductive nephrectomy, and whole brain radiotherapy. Thereafter, he received sunitinib, everolimus, and sorafenib sequentially for 11 months, 2 months, and 2 months, respectively. No tumor recurrence or progression of brain lesions has been reported in this patient for the past 16 months.
brain  RCC  cancer  everolimus  sunitinib  stereotactic-radiation 
2 days ago by cnk
Breast cancer brain metastases: the last frontier | Experimental Hematology & Oncology | Full Text
Abstract

Breast cancer is a common cause of brain metastases, with metastases occurring in at least 10–16 % of patients. Longer survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer and the use of better imaging techniques are associated with an increased incidence of brain metastases. Unfortunately, patients who develop brain metastases tend to have poor prognosis with short overall survival. In addition, brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity, associated with progressive neurologic deficits that result in a reduced quality of life. Tumor subtypes play a key role in prognosis and treatment selection. Current therapies include surgery, whole-brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, chemotherapy and targeted therapies. However, the timing and appropriate use of these therapies is controversial and careful patient selection by using available prognostic tools is extremely important. This review will focus on current treatment options, novel therapies, future approaches and ongoing clinical trials for patients with breast cancer brain metastases.
brain  cancer 
2 days ago by cnk
Everolimus and Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Brain Metastasis From Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
RATIONALE: Everolimus may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth and by blocking blood flow to the tumor. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Giving everolimus together with whole-brain radiation therapy may kill more tumor cells.

PURPOSE: This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best dose of everolimus and to see how well it works when given together with whole-brain radiation therapy in treating patients with brain metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer.

his study has been terminated.
(Terminated due to low accrual. Study was closed to accrual prematurely and did not continue on to Phase II.)
Sponsor:
Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center
stereotactic-radiation  brain  cancer  everolimus 
2 days ago by cnk
WBRT No ‘Magic Bullet’ for Breast Cancer CNS Metastases | Cancer Network
Recent findings have raised doubts about the promise of whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) against metastatic brain tumors for patients with advanced breast cancer, according to a speaker at the 34th Annual Miami Breast Cancer Conference, held March 9–12 in Miami Beach, Florida.


Survival has improved for almost all types of metastatic breast cancer. But as a result, more patients are living long enough to develop late-stage metastases of the brain, a daunting management challenge, reported Kimberly L. Blackwell, MD, of the Duke Cancer Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Despite progress in treating HER2-positive central nervous system (CNS) metastases, the reality is that “most patients do die of CNS metastases, having very well-controlled below the neck disease,” Blackwell said.

A long-standing hope had been that WBRT could improve patient survival times. But recent clinical trial experience has tempered that optimism, Blackwell said.

For example, results from patients with lung cancer who participated in the phase III non-inferiority Quality of Life after Treatment for Brain Metastases (QUARTZ) trial were disappointing, finding no quality of life or survival benefits, Blackwell noted.

“We tend to think of non–small-cell lung cancer patients as doing worse than breast cancer, but with the introduction of immunotherapy, they’re catching up, frankly,” noted Blackwell.

WBRT offered patients with lung cancer metastasis of the brain “no benefit above palliative care,” she said.

“This is the kind of study we need to continue to do in this patient space,” Blackwell said. Such findings inform treatment decision-making and serve to temper the understandable instinct to “rush” to WBRT when patients develop symptomatic brain metastases, Blackwell explained.

Another study, published in JAMA, found that among patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases, adding WBRT to stereotactic radiosurgery was associated with worsened cognitive deterioration after 3 months, with no overall survival benefits.

Other avenues of research might offer better hope for the future of CNS metastasis management despite the disappointing findings for WBRT, however.

“Don’t forget about traditional agents that might cross into the brain,” Blackwell urged, adding that some small molecules that are active against HER2 have demonstrated “some activity” in the brain.

“There is some evidence that before we jump to WBRT, we should think about some of these drugs,” she said, noting evidence that several newer agents, including capecitabine, CDK4/6 inhibitors, everolimus, and PARP inhibitors “all have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.” Several are undergoing study.

“I think we’ve moved the needle a little bit with HER2-positive disease,” Blackwell said.

For example, single-agent neratinib has shown modest anticancer activity in progressing HER2-positive brain metastases, albeit admittedly with “a bit of a lackluster response rate at 8%,” she said.

If brain metastases progress but disease is controlled elsewhere, systemic therapy should not be changed and brain metastases should be treated, she said.

The SWOG 1416 trial is currently enrolling patients with triple-negative breast cancer who have not undergone radiation therapy, Blackwell noted.

“Clinical trials offer great options for patients facing CNS metastases,” she concluded.
cancer  stereotactic-radiation  immunotherapy  brain 
2 days ago by cnk
'Learn Better' Book Shows How to Learn New Things - The Atlantic
A new book explores the psychology of mastering skills and absorbing information.
book  brain  education  psychology  learning 
3 days ago by dajbelshaw

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