biochemistry   1190

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Eileen M. Lafer, Ph.D., professor in the Department of and has been selected to re…
Biochemistry  StructuralBiology  from twitter_favs
18 days ago by tolkien
Frances Arnold Turns Microbes Into Living Factories - The New York Times
As it happens, Dr. Arnold, 62, has built a spectacularly successful career on her willingness to cede control in the laboratory to a force much greater than any armed guard or head of state: evolution.

Dr. Arnold won fame and the Nobel Prize for developing a technique called directed evolution, a way of generating a host of novel enzymes and other biomolecules that can be put to any number of uses — detoxifying a chemical spill, for example, or disrupting the mating dance of an agricultural pest. Or removing laundry stains in eco-friendly cold water, or making drugs without relying on eco-hostile metal catalysts.
science  biology  biochemistry  microbiology  life  research  evolution  chemistry 
20 days ago by msszczep
Estradiol-Induced Potentiation of Dopamine Release in Dorsal Striatum Following Amphetamine Administration Requires Estradiol Receptors and mGlu5
Estradiol potentiates behavioral sensitization to cocaine as well as self-administration of cocaine and other drugs of abuse in female rodents. Furthermore, stimulated dopamine (DA) in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is rapidly enhanced by estradiol, and it is hypothesized that this enhanced DA release mediates the more rapid escalation of drug taking seen in females, compared with males. The mechanisms mediating the effect of estradiol to enhance stimulated DA release were investigated in this study. Using in vivo microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection, we first examined the effect of estradiol on amphetamine-induced DA increase in the DLS of ovariectomized rats. We then tested whether the potentiation of this DA increase could be blocked by the estradiol receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780 (ICI), or an antagonist to the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5), 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP). There is evidence that estradiol receptors collaborate with mGlu5 within caveoli in DLS and mGlu5 is hypothesized to mediate many of the effects of estradiol in the addiction processes in females. Our data show that estradiol enhances the DA response to amphetamine. Either ICI or MPEP prevented the effect of estradiol to enhance DA release. Importantly, our results also showed that neither ICI or MPEP alone is able to influence the DA response to amphetamine when estradiol is not administrated, suggesting that ICI and MPEP act via estradiol receptors. Together, our findings demonstrate that estradiol potentiates amphetamine-stimulated DA release in the DLS and this effect requires both estradiol receptors and mGlu5.
8 weeks ago by whitequark
BBC - Future - Can you survive if you run out of air?
Science tells us the human body can only survive for a few minutes without oxygen. But some people are defying this accepted truth.
11 weeks ago by whitequark
Depression: the case for a monoamine deficiency. - PubMed - NCBI
The monoamine hypothesis of depression predicts that the underlying pathophysiologic basis of depression is a depletion in the levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and/or dopamine in the central nervous system. This hypothesized pathophysiology appears to be supported by the mechanism of action of antidepressants: agents that elevate the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain have all been shown to be effective in the alleviation of depressive symptoms. However, intensive investigation has failed to find convincing evidence of a primary dysfunction of a specific monoamine system in patients with major depressive disorders. Understanding of the etiology of depression has been hampered by the absence of direct measurements of monoamines in humans. However, the monoamine depletion paradigm, which reproduces the clinical syndrome, allows a more direct method for investigating the role of monoamines. Results from such studies show that antidepressant responses are transiently reversed, with the response being dependent on the class of antidepressant. In contrast, monoamine depletion does not worsen symptoms in depressed patients not taking medication, nor does it cause depression in healthy volunteers with no depressive illness. In conclusion, it is clear that antidepressant agents in current use do indeed require intact monoamine systems for their therapeutic effect. However, some debate remains as to the precise role that a deficiency in monoamine system(s) may play in depression itself.
12 weeks ago by whitequark

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