axioms   131

« earlier    

Alon Amit's answer to Why is there no formal definition for a set in math? How can we make any statement about sets (and therefore all of math) if we don’t even know what it is? - Quora
In the realm of mathematics, an object is what it does (I keep quoting Tim Gowers with this phrase, and I will likely do so many more times). The only thing that matters about points, lines, real numbers, sets, functions, groups and tempered distributions is the properties and features and rules they obey. What they “are” is of no concern.

I've seen this idea in a lot of different places
q-n-a  qra  math  lens  abstraction  essence-existence  analytical-holistic  forms-instances  big-picture  aphorism  axioms  definition  characterization  zooming 
july 2019 by nhaliday
Lessons from 6 software rewrite stories – Herb Caudill – Medium
Almost two decades ago, Joel Spolsky excoriated Netscape for rewriting their codebase in his landmark essay Things You Should Never Do.
cadt  software.development  axioms  received.wisdom  programming  software  history  rewrite.from.scratch  post.mortem 
february 2019 by po
Logic, Explainability and the Future of Understanding
A long, wide-ranging article by Stephen Wolfram. Ostensibly about developing computer-assisted proofs by enumeration. But riffs into philosophical discussions around the nature of doing science, mathematics, and proofs. In particular, the explainability and understandability of proofs by humans. A long deep read.
wolfram  mathematica  logic  theorems  proofs  axioms  science  philosophy  mathematics  understandability  explainability  abstraction  knowledge 
november 2018 by drmeme
Imagine there’s no Congress - The Washington Post
- Adrian Vermeule

In the spirit of John Lennon, let’s imagine, all starry-eyed, that there’s no U.S. Congress. In this thought experiment, the presidency and the Supreme Court would be the only federal institutions, along with whatever subordinate agencies the president chose to create. The court would hold judicial power, while the president would make and execute laws. The president would be bound by elections and individual constitutional rights, but there would be no separation of legislative from executive power.

Would such a system be better or worse than our current system? How different would it be, anyway?
news  org:rec  rhetoric  contrarianism  usa  government  elections  democracy  antidemos  alt-inst  proposal  institutions  axioms  law  leviathan  leadership  obama  nascent-state  counter-revolution  journos-pundits  douthatish  responsibility  the-founding  benevolence 
april 2018 by nhaliday
Finders, keepers - Wikipedia
Finders, keepers is an English adage with the premise that when something is unowned or abandoned, whoever finds it first can claim it. This idiom relates to an ancient Roman law of similar meaning and has been expressed in various ways over the centuries.[1] Of particular difficulty is how best to define when exactly something is unowned or abandoned, which can lead to legal or ethical disputes.

...

In the field of social simulation, Rosaria Conte and Cristiano Castelfranchi have used "finders, keepers" as a case study for simulating the evolution of norms in simple societies.[2]
concept  heuristic  law  leviathan  wiki  reference  aphorism  metabuch  philosophy  canon  history  iron-age  mediterranean  the-classics  anglosphere  conquest-empire  civil-liberty  social-norms  social-structure  universalism-particularism  axioms  ethics  simulation  egalitarianism-hierarchy  inequality  power  models  GT-101  EGT  new-religion  deep-materialism  parallax 
april 2018 by nhaliday
Mistakes happen for a reason | Bloody shovel
Which leads me to this article by Scott Alexander. He elaborates on an idea by one of his ingroup about their being two ways of looking at things, “mistake theory” and “conflict theory”. Mistake theory claims that political opposition comes from a different understanding of issues: if people had the same amount of knowledge and proper theories to explain it, they would necessarily agree. Conflict theory states that people disagree because their interests conflict, the conflict is zero-sum so there’s no reason to agree, the only question is how to resolve the conflict.

I was speechless. I am quite used to Mr. Alexander and his crowd missing the point on purpose, but this was just too much. Mistake theory and Conflict theory are not parallel things. “Mistake theory” is just the natural, tribalist way of thinking. It assumes an ingroup, it assumes the ingroup has a codified way of thinking about things, and it interprets all disagreement as a lack of understanding of the obviously objective and universal truths of the ingroup religion. There is a reason why liberals call “ignorant” all those who disagree with them. Christians used to be rather more charitable on this front and asked for “faith”, which they also assumed was difficult to achieve.

Conflict theory is one of the great achievements of the human intellect; it is an objective, useful and predictively powerful way of analyzing human disagreement. There is a reason why Marxist historiography revolutionized the world and is still with us: Marx made a strong point that human history was based on conflict. Which is true. It is tautologically true. If you understand evolution it stands to reason that all social life is about conflict. The fight for genetical survival is ultimately zero-sum, and even in those short periods of abundance when it is not, the fight for mating supremacy is very much zero-sum, and we are all very much aware of that today. Marx focused on class struggle for political reasons, which is wrong, but his focus on conflict was a gust of fresh air for those who enjoy objective analysis.

Incidentally the early Chinese thinkers understood conflict theory very well, which is why Chinese civilization is still around, the oldest on earth. A proper understanding of conflict does not come without its drawbacks, though. Mistakes happen for a reason. Pat Buchanan actually does understand why USG open the doors to trade with China. Yes, Whig history was part of it, but that’s just the rhetoric used to justify the idea. The actual motivation to trade with China was making money short term. Lots of money. Many in the Western elite have made huge amounts of money with the China trade. Money that conveniently was funneled to whichever political channels it had to do in order to keep the China trade going. Even without Whig history, even without the clueless idea that China would never become a political great power, the short-term profits to be made were big enough to capture the political process in the West and push for it. Countries don’t have interests: people do.

That is true, and should be obvious, but there are dangers to the realization. There’s a reason why people dislike cynics. People don’t want to know the truth. It’s hard to coordinate around the truth, especially when the truth is that humans are selfish assholes constantly in conflict. Mistakes happen because people find it convenient to hide the truth; and “mistake theory” happens because policing the ingroup patterns of thought, limiting the capability of people of knowing too much, is politically useful. The early Chinese kingdoms developed a very sophisticated way of analyzing objective reality. The early kingdoms were also full of constant warfare, rebellions and elite betrayals; all of which went on until the introduction in the 13th century of a state ideology (neoconfucianism) based on complete humbug and a massively unrealistic theory on human nature. Roman literature is refreshingly objective and to the point. Romans were also murderous bastards who assassinated each other all the time. It took the massive pile of nonsense which we call the Christian canon to get Europeans to cooperate in a semi-stable basis.

But guess what? Conflict theory also exists for a reason. And the reason is to extricate oneself from the ingroup, to see things how they actually are, and to undermine the state religion from the outside. Marxists came up with conflict theory because they knew they had little to expect from fighting from within the system. Those low-status workers who still regarded their mainstream society as being the ingroup they very sharply called “alienated”, and by using conflict theory they showed what the ingroup ideology was actually made of. Pat Buchanan and his cuck friends should take the message and stop assuming that the elite is playing for the same team as they are. The global elite, of America and its vassals, is not mistaken. They are playing for themselves: to raise their status above yours, to drop their potential rivals into eternal misery and to rule forever over them. China, Syria, and everything else, is about that.

https://bloodyshovel.wordpress.com/2018/03/09/mistakes-happen-for-a-reason/#comment-18834
Heh heh. It’s a lost art. The Greeks and Romans were realists about it (except Cicero, that idealistic bastard). They knew language, being the birthright of man, was just another way (and a damn powerful one) to gain status, make war, and steal each other’s women. Better be good at wielding it.
gnon  right-wing  commentary  china  asia  current-events  politics  ideology  coalitions  government  statesmen  leviathan  law  axioms  authoritarianism  usa  democracy  antidemos  trade  nationalism-globalism  elite  error  whiggish-hegelian  left-wing  paleocon  history  mostly-modern  world-war  impetus  incentives  interests  self-interest  signaling  homo-hetero  hypocrisy  meta:rhetoric  debate  language  universalism-particularism  tribalism  us-them  zero-positive-sum  absolute-relative  class  class-warfare  communism  polanyi-marx  westminster  realness  cynicism-idealism  truth  coordination  cooperate-defect  medieval  confucian  iron-age  mediterranean  the-classics  literature  canon  europe  the-great-west-whale  occident  sinosphere  orient  nl-and-so-can-you  world  conquest-empire  malthus  status  egalitarianism-hierarchy  evolution  conceptual-vocab  christianity  society  anthropology  metabuch  hidden-motives  X-not-about-Y  dark-arts  illusion  martial  war  cohesion  military  correlation  causation  roots  japan  comparison  long-short-run  mul 
march 2018 by nhaliday
Uniformitarianism - Wikipedia
Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity,[1] is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere.[2][3] It refers to invariance in the principles underpinning science, such as the constancy of causality, or causation, throughout time,[4] but it has also been used to describe invariance of physical laws through time and space.[5] Though an unprovable postulate that cannot be verified using the scientific method, uniformitarianism has been a key first principle of virtually all fields of science.[6]

In geology, uniformitarianism has included the gradualistic concept that "the present is the key to the past" (that events occur at the same rate now as they have always done); many geologists now, however, no longer hold to a strict theory of gradualism.[7] Coined by William Whewell, the word was proposed in contrast to catastrophism[8] by British naturalists in the late 18th century, starting with the work of the geologist James Hutton. Hutton's work was later refined by scientist John Playfair and popularised by geologist Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology in 1830.[9] Today, Earth's history is considered to have been a slow, gradual process, punctuated by occasional natural catastrophic events.
concept  axioms  jargon  homo-hetero  wiki  reference  science  the-trenches  philosophy  invariance  universalism-particularism  time  spatial  religion  christianity  theos  contradiction  noble-lie  thinking  metabuch  reason  rigidity  flexibility  analytical-holistic  systematic-ad-hoc  degrees-of-freedom  absolute-relative  n-factor  explanans  the-great-west-whale  occident  sinosphere  orient  truth  earth  conceptual-vocab  metameta  history  early-modern  britain  anglo  anglosphere  roots  forms-instances  volo-avolo  deep-materialism  new-religion  logos 
january 2018 by nhaliday

« earlier    

related tags

1997  2016-election  80-20  a  absolute-relative  abstraction  acemoglu  additive  advice  affordance  afterlife  ai-control  ai  algebra  alien-character  alignment  alphabet  alt-inst  altruism  analysis  analytical-holistic  anglo  anglosphere  anomie  anthropology  antidemos  antiquity  aphorism  apollonian-dionysian  archaeology  architecture  aristos  arrows  article  articles  asia  attaq  authoritarianism  axiom  background_information  backup  bad_behavior  baez  baltimoresun  bayesian  behavior  benefit  benevolence  bensteinhurst  berners-lee  bible  big-list  big-peeps  big-picture  bio  bitcoin  blame_game  book  books  britain  broad-econ  business  cadt  canada  canon  capitalism  cards  career  cartoons  causation  cause_and_effect  characterization  charity  chart  cheatsheet  checking  checklists  china  christianity  civic  civil-liberty  civilization  class-warfare  class  classic  cliometrics  close_relationships  clown-world  clustering  coalitions  cohesion  collection  comics  commentary  communication_events  communication_pattern  communication_transactions  communism  comparison  complex-systems  computation  computerscience  concept  conceptual-vocab  confucian  conquest-empire  contracts  contradiction  contrarianism  cool  cooperate-defect  coordination  cornell  corporation  correlation  corruption  coslinks  cost  countable  counter-revolution  cracker-econ  creative  crime  criminal-justice  critique  crocheting  crux  cryptocurrency  cs  cultural-dynamics  culture-war  culture  curiosity  current-events  cybernetics  cynicism-idealism  dainataimina  danielcornaggio  dark-arts  data  database  death  debate  decentralized  decision-making  decision-theory  deep-materialism  definition  degrees-of-freedom  democracy  demographics  design  developing-world  development  dictums  differential  dignity  direct-indirect  direction  discrimination  discussion  distressed_relationships  distributed  distribution  diversity  douthatish  drama  duality  duty  dynamic  early-modern  earth  ecology  economics  econotariat  eden-heaven  education  egalitarianism-hierarchy  egt  einstein  elections  electromag  elegance  elite  empirical  entropy-like  epistemic  epistemology  error  essay  essence-existence  ethics  ethnocentrism  euclid  euclidian  europe  evidence-based  evolution  examples  exegesis-hermeneutics  exit-voice  experiment  explainability  explainlikeimfive  explanans  explanation  fap  favorites  fiction  finance  finitely  finitelyadditiveprobability  finiteness  flat  flexibility  flux-stasis  formal-grammar  formal-values  forms-instances  fractals  fungibility-liquidity  futility  futurism  garett-jones  gavisti  gedanken  gender-diff  gender  geometry  germanic  giants  gnon  gnosis-logos  good-evil  government  gowers  graphs  gs  gt-101  guidelines  hanson  heuristic  heuristics  hi-order-bits  hidden-motives  history  hive-mind  hmm  hn  homo-hetero  howto  hypocrisy  hypothesis-testing  identity-politics  ideology  illusion  impetus  incentives  increase-decrease  individualism-collectivism  industrial-org  industrial-revolution  inequality  inference  info-dynamics  info-foraging  infographic  inspiration  institutions  instrumental  interdisciplinary  interesting  interests  internet  interpersonal_communication  interpretation  interview  invariance  investigative-journo  iron-age  is-ought  islam  iteration-recursion  janus  japan  jargon  jonathanpitts  journos-pundits  judaism  judgement  knowledge  l-system  language  latin-america  law  laws  leadership  left-wing  len:short  lens  lesswrong  let-me-see  letters  leviathan  lindenmayer-system  links  list  lists  literature  lmao  local-global  logic  logos  long-short-run  machine-learning  machine.learning  madisonian  malthus  maps  marginal-rev  marginal  marketing  martial  match  material  math  mathematica  mathematicians  mathematics  mathtariat  mc  mcdanielcollege  measurement  mechanisms  media  medieval  mediterranean  mena  mental-models  mental  meta:math  meta:prediction  meta:rhetoric  metabuch  metameta  methodology  methods  metrics  microfoundations  migration  military  miri-cfar  modal  model  models  modernity  monetary-fiscal  money  morality  morphology  mostly-modern  motivation  multi  mutation  mystic  myth  myths  n-factor  nascent-state  nationalism-globalism  natural-experiment  nature  new-religion  news  nibble  nihil  nikolailobachevsky  nl-and-so-can-you  noble-lie  north-weingast-like  numbers  obama  objektbuch  observers  occams  occident  old-anglo  oly  optimate  order-disorder  org:anglo  org:biz  org:bleg  org:bv  org:data  org:econlib  org:edu  org:euro  org:gov  org:junk  org:lite  org:local  org:mag  org:popup  org:rec  org:theos  organizing  orient  orwellian  overflow  p=np  paganism  paleocon  paper  parallax  parallel-rewriting  patterns  paying-rent  pdf  peano  peanoaxioms  people  performance  phalanges  phil310  philosophy  phys-energy  physics  pic  piracy  planning  poast  poincareconjecture  polanyi-marx  polarization  policy  polisci  political-econ  politics  population  post.mortem  postmortem  power  pragmatic  pragmatics_of_human_communication  pre-ww2  prediction-markets  prejudice  principles  privacy  probability  production  profile  programming  progression  proofs  propaganda  proposal  protestant-catholic  protocol-metadata  protocols  prudence  punctuation  purpose  putnam-like  q-n-a  qra  quantum-info  quantum  quixotic  quiz  quotes  race  randy-ayndy  rationality  ratty  razor  reading  realness  reason  received.wisdom  reddit  reference  reflection  regulation  relational_communication  relationships  relativity  religion  resources  responsibility  review  revolution  rewrite.from.scratch  rhetoric  riemannhypothesis  right-wing  rigidity  roots  rot  rule  rules  scalability  scale  science  scitariat  search  selection  self-help  self-interest  self_concept  sequence_of_events  sequential  series  short-circuit  signaling  simulation  sinosphere  skeleton  sky  sleuthin  slippery-slope  social-choice  social-norms  social-structure  social  society  soft-question  software.development  software  softwaredevelopment  space  spatial  speaking  spearhead  speed  stat-mech  statesmen  statistics  status  steve-canon  stimuli  stories  strings  structure  study  stylized-facts  sulla  summary  sunk  swift-core-team  symbolic  symbols  synchrony  synthesis  systematic-ad-hoc  systems  szabo  tcs  tcstariat  technical  technocracy  techtariat  telos-atelos  temporal  terrorism  tetlock  the-classics  the-devil  the-founding  the-great-west-whale  the-trenches  theorem  theorems  theory  theos  thermo  things  thinking  tim  time-series  time  tinderboxed  tip-of-tongue  tocqueville  todo  tools  top-n  topology  toxoplasmosis  track-record  trade  tradition  translation  trends  tribalism  trivia  troll  trump  truth  twitter  unaffiliated  uncertainty  understandability  uniqueness  universalism-particularism  us-them  usa  utopia-dystopia  ux  uxcogpsy  values  virtu  visual-understanding  visualization  volo-avolo  war  wealth-of-nations  web  westminster  whiggish-hegelian  whole-partial-many  wiki  wikipedia  wisdom  wolfram  wonkish  world-war  world  wtf  x-not-about-y  zeitgeist  zermelo.frank  zero-positive-sum  zero  zooming  🎩 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: