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Americans Used to be Proud of their Universities | The American Conservative
Some Notes on the Finances of Top Chinese Universities:
A glimpse into the finances of top Chinese universities suggests they share more than we might have imagined with American flagship public universities, but also that claims of imminent “catch up” might be overblown
news  org:mag  right-wing  reflection  history  early-modern  pre-ww2  mostly-modern  europe  germanic  britain  gibbon  trends  rot  zeitgeist  usa  china  asia  sinosphere  higher-ed  academia  westminster  comparison  analogy  multi  org:edu  money  monetary-fiscal  data  analysis  pro-rata  cs  tech  realness  social-science  the-world-is-just-atoms  science  innovation  is-ought  truth  identity-politics 
18 days ago by nhaliday
Can Europe Run Greece? Lessons from U.S. Fiscal Receiverships in Latin America, 1904-31 by Noel Maurer, Leticia Arroyo Abad :: SSRN
In 2012 and again in 2015, the German government proposed sending German administrators to manage Greece’s tax and privatization authorities. The idea was that shared governance would reduce corruption and root out inefficient practices. (In 2017 the Boston Globe proposed a similar arrangement for Haiti.) We test a version of shared governance using eight U.S. interventions between 1904 and 1931, under which American officials took over management of Latin American fiscal institutions. We develop a stylized model in which better monitoring by incorruptible managers does not lead to higher government revenues. Using a new panel of data on fiscal revenues and the volume and terms of trade, we find that revenue fell under receiverships. Our results hold under instrumental variables estimation and with counterfactual specifications using synthetic controls.
study  economics  broad-econ  political-econ  growth-econ  polisci  government  monetary-fiscal  money  europe  the-great-west-whale  germanic  mediterranean  usa  latin-america  conquest-empire  corruption  integrity  n-factor  management  history  mostly-modern  pre-ww2  models  analogy  track-record  endo-exo  counterfactual  cliometrics  micro 
23 days ago by nhaliday
House O’Rats | West Hunter
Not content with our simple selection experiment, we also install complicated mazes with flaming hoops that the rats have to jump through in order to get extra food and mates: we want rats with different brains, and eventually we get them. They’re maze-bright and flaming-hoop-bright. We install treadmills and feed the rats according to their work output, and eventually they produce more work per amount of food eaten. They’ve maximized efficiency rather than surge power, which was more useful back when they were wild and free. Not only that, they eventually come to like being on the treadmill, almost as if it’s some sort of race.

There are other silos – one full of rice and another full of maize. They have different mazes and flaming hoops, built at different times: and there are still wild rats, too, although not as many as in the silos.

But no matter how much they change, they’re still just a bunch of rats.
west-hunter  scitariat  discussion  ideas  gedanken  analogy  comparison  parable  sapiens  pop-diff  recent-selection  agriculture  farmers-and-foragers  population  metabolic  nutrition  diet  immune  disease  parasites-microbiome  egalitarianism-hierarchy  ethanol  iq  intelligence  eden  embodied  fitness  efficiency  race  conceptual-vocab  🌞  biodet  behavioral-gen  agri-mindset 
6 weeks ago by nhaliday
Of Mice and Men | West Hunter
It’s not always easy figuring out how a pathogen causes disease. There is an example in mice for which the solution was very difficult, so difficult that we would probably have failed to discover the cause of a similarly obscure infectious disease in humans.

Mycoplasma pulmonis causes a chronic obstructive lung disease in mice, but it wasn’t easy to show this. The disease was first described in 1915, and by 1940, people began to suspect Mycoplasma pulmonis might be the cause. But then again, maybe not. It was often found in mice that seemed healthy. Pure cultures of this organism did not consistently produce lung disease – which means that it didn’t satisfy Koch’s postulates, in particular postulate 1 (The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not be found in healthy organisms.) and postulate 3 (The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.).

Well, those postulates are not logic itself, but rather a useful heuristic. Koch knew that, even if lots of other people don’t.


Here’s how they solved it. You can raise germ-free mice. In the early 1970s, researchers injected various candidate pathogens into different groups of germ-free mice and waited to see which, if any, developed this chronic lung disease. It was Mycoplasma pulmonis , all right, but it had taken 60 years to find out.

It turned out that susceptibility differed between different mouse strains – genetic susceptibility was important. Co-infection with other pathogens affected the course of the disease. Microenvironmental details mattered – mainly ammonia in cages where the bedding wasn’t changed often enough. But it didn’t happen without that mycoplasma, which was a key causal link, something every engineer understands but many MDs don’t.

If there was a similarly obscure infectious disease of humans, say one that involved a fairly common bug found in both the just and the unjust, one that took decades for symptoms to manifest – would we have solved it? Probably not.

Cooties are everywhere.

gay germ search:
It’s hard to say, depends on how complicated the path of causation is. Assuming that I’m even right, of course. Some good autopsy studies might be fruitful – you’d look for microanatomical brain differences, as with nartcolepsy. Differences in gene expression, maybe. You could look for a pathogen – using the digital version of RDA (representational difference analysis), say on discordant twins. Do some old-fashioned epidemiology. Look for marker antibodies, signs of some sort of immunological event.

Do all of the above on gay rams – lots easier to get started, much less whining from those being vivisected.

Patrick Moore found the virus causing Kaposi’s sarcoma without any funding at all. I’m sure Peter Thiel could afford a serious try.
west-hunter  scitariat  discussion  ideas  reflection  analogy  model-organism  bio  disease  parasites-microbiome  medicine  epidemiology  heuristic  thick-thin  stories  experiment  track-record  intricacy  gotchas  low-hanging  🌞  patience  complex-systems  meta:medicine  multi  poast  methodology  red-queen  brain-scan  neuro  twin-study  immune  nature  gender  sex  sexuality  thiel  barons  gwern 
6 weeks ago by nhaliday
Genetic Architectures | West Hunter
Dairy cattle eventually graduate to McDonalds, so there is some interest in the genetics of beef production in dairy breeds. There is course more interest in the genetics of beef production in beef breeds of cattle.

Usually you don’t find a single allele that makes a lot of difference, but in some beef breeds, there are myostatin mutations that result in a ridiculous-looking, ‘double-muscled’ beast. Homozygosity for myostatin mutations causes difficulties in birth, so it takes really strong selection for beef production to make a myostatin null common. I don’t think you ever see this in dairy breeds.

But, as it turns out, there is a deletion that is pretty common in some dairy breeds that significantly increases milk production while killing homozygotes before birth.

Breeds under weaker selection for single traits, your typical cow of the past, probably have neither.

The point is that the genetic architecture of a quantitative trait does not have to be the same in different populations of the same species. For example, I have the impression that height is not as highly polygenic in Pygmies as it is most other human populations. There’s a particular region on chromosome 3 that seems to influence height- you don’t see such a concentration in Europeans.
west-hunter  scitariat  discussion  ideas  speculation  sapiens  pop-diff  genetics  population-genetics  QTL  homo-hetero  analogy  agriculture  nature  food  comparison  embodied  archaics  africa 
7 weeks ago by nhaliday
File:Animated 3 Gear Row Frame1.svg - Wikimedia Commons
Sweet, PD so no attribution required.
This file is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication.
The person who associated a work with this deed has dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law. You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.
gear  clipart  svg  animated  gif  digital  platform  gearbox  analogy  public  domain  cc:0  attribution 
8 weeks ago by fang
The Facts Technologies Curse – An Analogy | Best Images Collections HD For Gadget windows Mac Android
One particular common working day in the place of work, Mr. Boss phone calls a assembly with Mr. IT to describe the task he would like to have finished. Mr. Boss begins by stating he has budgeted some funds for a straightforward undertaking that entails going to the retail store to select up a t-shirt, […]
IFTTT  WordPress  Technology  Analogy  Curse  facts  Technologies 
9 weeks ago by wotek
Noted cognitive scientist asserts that analogy is (almost) the whole enchilada
Analogy is the "motor of the car of thought" and "the interstate freeway of cognition," said Hofstadter in a talk titled "Analogy as the Core of Cognition." Hofstadter, director of the Fluid Analogies Research Group (FARG) at the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition at IU, has written on topics including artificial intelligence and poetry translation and is the author of the popular and Pulitzer Prize-winning Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (1979).

Far from being a subset associated with problem solving—a tiny "Delaware on the map of cognition"—or a special variety of reasoning, analogy is the main event, Hofstadter asserted during an evening lecture Feb. 6 and during a discussion the following afternoon at the Humanities Center.
Hofstrader  information  consciousness  analogy 
9 weeks ago by everbigger
Overcoming Bias : High Dimensional Societes?
I’ve seen many “spatial” models in social science. Such as models where voters and politicians sit at points in a space of policies. Or where customers and firms sit at points in a space of products. But I’ve never seen a discussion of how one should expect such models to change in high dimensions, such as when there are more dimensions than points.

In small dimensional spaces, the distances between points vary greatly; neighboring points are much closer to each other than are distant points. However, in high dimensional spaces, distances between points vary much less; all points are about the same distance from all other points. When points are distributed randomly, however, these distances do vary somewhat, allowing us to define the few points closest to each point as that point’s “neighbors”. “Hubs” are closest neighbors to many more points than average, while “anti-hubs” are closest neighbors to many fewer points than average. It turns out that in higher dimensions a larger fraction of points are hubs and anti-hubs (Zimek et al. 2012).

If we think of people or organizations as such points, is being a hub or anti-hub associated with any distinct social behavior?  Does it contribute substantially to being popular or unpopular? Or does the fact that real people and organizations are in fact distributed in real space overwhelm such things, which only only happen in a truly high dimensional social world?
ratty  hanson  speculation  ideas  thinking  spatial  dimensionality  high-dimension  homo-hetero  analogy  models  network-structure  degrees-of-freedom 
12 weeks ago by nhaliday
The Story of the Suicidal Kangaroo - The Analogies Project
"Identify the suicidal kangaroos within your organisation. Typically resistance to behaviour change is related to a particular culture, so you may find that a particular department or function (where cultural norms are distinct to that function) may be resistant to behaviour change."
security  analogy  change  dopost 
july 2017 by niksilver

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