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How online citizenship is unsettling rights and identities | openDemocracy
"Citizenship law and how it is applied are worth watching, as litmus tests for wider democratic freedoms."

"Jus algoritmi is a term coined by John Cheney-Lippold to describe a new form of citizenship which is produced by the surveillance state, whose primary mode of operation, like other state forms before it, is control through identification and categorisation. Jus algoritmi – the right of the algorithm – refers to the increasing use of software to make judgements about an individual’s citizenship status, and thus to decide what rights they have, and what operations upon their person are permitted."

"Moment by moment, the citizenship assigned to us, and thus the rights we may claim and the laws we are subject to, are changing, subject to interrogation and processing. We have become effectively stateless, as the concrete rights we have been accustomed to flicker and shift with a moment’s (in)attention.

But in addition to showing us a new potential vector of oppression, Citizen Ex illustrates, in the same way that the internet itself illustrates political and social relationships, the distribution of identity and culture in our everyday online behaviour. The nation state has never been a sufficient container for identity, but our technology has caught up with our situation, illuminating the many and varied failures of historical models of citizenship to account for the myriad of ways in which people live, behave, and travel over the surface of the planet. This realisation and its representation are both important and potentially emancipatory, if we choose to follow its implications.

We live in a time of both mass migrations, caused by war, climate change, economic need and demographic shift, and of a shift in mass identification, as ever greater numbers of us form social bonds with other individuals and groups outside our physical locations and historical cultures. If we accept that both of these kinds of change are, if not caused by, at least widely facilitated by modern communication technologies – from social media to banking networks and military automation – then it follows that these technologies may also be deployed to produce new forms of interaction and subjectivity which better model the actual state of the world – and one which is more desirable to inhabit."

"It remains to be seen whether e-residency will benefit those with most to gain from reengineered citizenship, or, like so many other digital products, merely augment the agency of those who already have first-class rights.

As the example of NSA’s procedures for determining citizenship illustrate, contemporary networked interventions in the sphere of identity are typically top-down, state-led, authoritarian moves to control and discipline individual subjects. Their operational processes are opaque, and they are used against their subjects, reducing their agency. The same is true for most corporate systems, from Facebook to Google to smart gas and water meters and vehicle trackers, which abstract data from the subject for financial gain. The Estonian example shows that digital citizenship regimes can point towards post-national, post-geographic territories, while continuing to reproduce the forms of identity most conducive to contemporary capitalism and nationhood. The challenge is to transform the internet, and thus the world, from a place where identity is constantly surveilled, judged, and operationalised, to a place where we can act freely as citizens of a greater sphere of social relationships: from a space which is entirely a border zone to one which is truly borderless."
jamesbridle  2017  nationalism  politics  citizenship  estonia  digital  physical  demoracy  rights  jusalgoritmi  algorithms  nsa  migration  refugees  identity  borders  borderlessness  society  mobility  travel  digitalcitizenship 
6 hours ago by robertogreco
[1612.08699] Comparative Causal Mediation: Relaxing the Assumption of No Mediator-Outcome Confounding
Experiments often include multiple treatments, with the primary goal to compare the causal effects of multiple treatments. While comparing the magnitudes of the average treatment effects (ATEs) is straightforward, there exist few methods to systematically compare the causal anatomies of each treatment (that is, the collection of causal mechanisms underlying each treatment's total effect) in order to understand the sources of their relative magnitudes. This study introduces a framework for comparing the causal anatomies of multiple treatments through the use of causal mediation analysis. The study proposes a set of comparative causal mediation estimands that compare the mediation effects of different treatments via a common mediator. It derives the properties of a set of estimators, which are shown to be consistent (or conservative) without making the assumption of no unobserved confounding of the mediator-outcome relationship, which is a strong and nonrefutable assumption that must be made for consistent estimation of individual causal mediation effects. The estimators are easy to understand and implement, thereby providing researchers with a simple, reliable, and systematic method of comparing, discovering, and testing the causal mechanism differences between multiple treatments. An original application is presented to illustrate the method.
experimental-design  statistics  rather-interesting  modeling  out-of-the-box  philosophy-of-science  algorithms  to-write-about  to-understand 
9 hours ago by Vaguery
[1404.3801] Shortest reconfiguration paths in the solution space of Boolean formulas
Given a Boolean formula and a satisfying assignment, a flip is an operation that changes the value of a variable in the assignment so that the resulting assignment remains satisfying. We study the problem of computing the shortest sequence of flips (if one exists) that transforms a given satisfying assignment s to another satisfying assignment t of a Boolean formula. Earlier work characterized the complexity of finding any (not necessarily the shortest) sequence of flips from one satisfying assignment to another using Schaefer's framework for classification of Boolean formulas. We build on it to provide a trichotomy for the complexity of finding the shortest sequence of flips and show that it is either in P, NP-complete, or PSPACE-complete.
Our result adds to the small set of complexity results known for shortest reconfiguration sequence problems by providing an example where the shortest sequence can be found in polynomial time even though its length is not equal to the symmetric difference of the values of the variables in s and t. This is in contrast to all reconfiguration problems studied so far, where polynomial time algorithms for computing the shortest path were known only for cases where the path modified the symmetric difference only.
computational-complexity  algorithms  rather-interesting  heuristics  to-write-about 
10 hours ago by Vaguery
[1706.10206] Sums of Palindromes: an Approach via Automata
Recently, Cilleruelo, Luca, & Baxter proved, for all bases b >= 5, that every natural number is the sum of at most 3 natural numbers whose base-b representation is a palindrome. However, the cases b = 2, 3, 4 were left unresolved.
We prove, using a decision procedure based on automata, that every natural number is the sum of at most 4 natural numbers whose base-2 representation is a palindrome. Here the constant 4 is optimal. We obtain similar results for bases 3 and 4, thus completely resolving the problem.
We consider some other variations on this problem, and prove similar results. We argue that heavily case-based proofs are a good signal that a decision procedure may help to automate the proof.
number-theory  rather-interesting  lovely  algorithms  proof  nudge-targets  consider:rediscovery  consider:representation  consider:looking-to-see 
14 hours ago by Vaguery
Programming books you might want to consider reading
Programming books you might want to consider reading - Added October 18, 2016 at 12:41PM
algorithms  books  computer-science  data-structures  math 
yesterday by xenocid
RaRe-Technologies/bounter: Efficient Counter that uses a limited (bounded) amount of memory regardless of data size.
bounter - Efficient Counter that uses a limited (bounded) amount of memory regardless of data size.
bigdata  algorithms  python  nlp 
yesterday by geetarista

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