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Verso
Data is the decision to acquire and measure bone-length dimensions from faces moving through the field of vision of a municipal CCTV camera. Code is the sorting of people into gendered buckets based on the results of those measurements. Policy is treating people differently depending on which bucket the system has placed them in.
adamgreenfield  data  code  algorithm  smartcities 
august 2017 by mayonissen
Digitalisierung - Vom Untergang des autonomen Subjekts - Kultur - Süddeutsche.de
Letztlich gebe es nur ein einziges Ziel: "das Alltagsleben im allergrößten möglichen Maße zu gestalten und zu monetarisieren". Dies führe, wenn die Entwicklung so weitergehe, zu "einer gewissen Letztlich gebe es nur ein einziges Ziel: "das Alltagsleben im allergrößten möglichen Maße zu gestalten und zu monetarisieren". Dies führe, wenn die Entwicklung so weitergehe, zu einer "abstumpfenden Gleichheit" der Welterfahrung, bei immer größerer individueller Abkapselung. Und das sei dann "nicht mehr das autonome Subjekt, von dem liberale Theorien ausgehen".

Längst ist "unser Verständnis der Welt", so schreibt Adam Greenfield, "konditioniert von Information, die uns aufgrund von Interessen übermittelt wird, die aber diese Interessen nicht offenlegt".

"Obwohl wir kaum begonnen haben zu erfassen, was das für unsere Seelen, unsere Gesellschaften, unsere Weltordnung bedeutet", stellt Greenfield fest, so ist das globale Netzwerk doch "schon grundlegend für unsere Alltagspraxis".

Doch längst heißt "Internetkritik" nicht mehr Opposition gegen das Netz, sondern Kritik des Internets. So wie Gesellschaftskritik, von ein paar wenigen radikalen Fällen abgesehen, auch nicht bedeutet, dass man die Gesellschaft abschaffen will.

Und immer öfter kommen solche Analysen von Kennern, die die digitale Revolution früh und eng begleitet haben. Es mehren sich kundige Erklärungsversuche: Was tut sich da eigentlich seit ein paar Jahren zwischen Technik, Geschäftsmodellen und Online-Lebensführung?

Ein Beispiel ist der Jurist Tim Wu mit seinem jüngsten Buch "The Attention Merchants", das die großen Netzfirmen als unentrinnbare "Aufmerksamkeitshändler" untersucht; ...
Und jetzt eben der Amerikaner Adam Greenfield, der sich "die Kolonisierung des täglichen Lebens" in dem Buch "Radical Technologies" (Verso Books, 2017) vornimmt.
Greenfield nimmt als linker Aufklärer links klingende Netz-Utopien auseinander

Das "Internet der Dinge" macht das Leben leichter? Es basiert auf der ständigen Übertragung von demografischen und persönlichen Daten und Verhaltensweisen, auf der Verknüpfung von Bewegungen im Raum, Surfgeschichte, Konsumvorlieben, Familien- und Finanzverhältnissen, Fitnessdaten und so weiter. "Sind die Einschränkungen, die uns das Leben in der nicht vernetzten Welt abfordert, wirklich so beschwerlich? Ist es wirklich so schwierig zu warten, bis man nach Hause kommt, um dann seinen Ofen vorzuheizen? Und ist es wirklich wert, sich so sehr zu entäußern, nur um dies von ferne tun zu können?"

Adam Greenfield greift die Programmierer an, die makellose, unparteiische, klare Klassifizierungen und Operationalisierungen verheißen - dieses Versprechen stehe nicht nur im Widerspruch zum viel chaotischeren, komplexeren sozialen Gefüge der Menschen, sondern auch zum tatsächlichen Durcheinander aller komplexen Datenverarbeitung.

Die Einbindung sämtlicher Handlungen und Geräte ins Netz sei ein Versuch, überall dort eine schnelle technische Korrektur anzubieten, "wo das Kapital uns die Fähigkeit genommen hat, uns umeinander zu kümmern".

Nächste Utopie. Die digitale, lokale Produktion mit 3-D-Druckern verspricht autonomes, gerechteres Wirtschaften? Die ganze Idee des "Makers Movement" fußt auf einer ultra-billigen Herstellung, die in Wahrheit nur durch Massenproduktion und große Ressourcenverschwendung möglich ist.

Auch wer einen 3-D-Drucker hat, braucht Rohstoffe und technische Expertise. Die Konsumgüter in heutigen Haushalten bestehen aus vielen gemischten Materialien und Spezialstoffen, so etwas kriegt man auch in Zukunft nicht als örtlicher Digitalproduzent hin, es setzt Arbeitsteilung und eine Zulieferindustrie voraus. Wer mehr Dinge selber herstellt, löst damit weder ökologische noch soziale Probleme.

Noch eine Utopie: Automatisierung, Roboter, künstliche Intelligenz befreien uns vom Joch der entfremdenden Arbeit? So will es der "Akzelerationismus", in dieselbe Richtung gehen die Hoffnungen des Engländers Paul Mason im "Postkapitalismus".

Nein, sagt Adam Greenfield: Es geht einfach um "billige, zuverlässige, willige Arbeitskraft". Die Schrumpfung bestimmter Arbeit durch die Digitalisierung wird für die Unqualifizierten, die überhaupt noch gebraucht werden, bedeuten, dass von ihnen noch härtere Arbeit zu noch mieseren Bedingungen verlangt wird. Auch ein bedingungsloses Grundeinkommen werde da nicht helfen, es zementiere nur die Unterschiede und die Prekarität der Überflüssigen.

Und ein wenig Zuversicht hält auch Adam Greenfield noch bereit: "Unsere Gestaltung der Welt trägt ja noch Spuren (...) eines Alltagslebens, das weniger eingeengt war und Unvollkommenheit stärker tolerierte."
adamgreenfield  digitalisierung  internet:broken  internet:kaputt 
july 2017 by MicrowebOrg
Adam Greenfield - Medialab Katowice interview
"So if neither distributed organizational topologies nor horizontal decision-making nor radical transparency and openness necessarily buy you equity and justice, it’s appropriate to ask: what would? And the only answer I have is that you have to fight directly for equity and for justice. You have to believe in and want those things first, and the tools that support them will follow, will be discovered or invented. But you can’t first build the tool and suppose that progressive values and organizing logics will flow outward from it — certainly not in any straightforward or uncomplicated way."

Adam makes a very clear argument against technical determinist utopianism; networks aren't going to save us. You have to do the work.
networks  @blog  adamgreenfield  progressive 
september 2015 by joshd
Uber, or: The technics and politics of socially corrosive mobility | Speedbird
"This state of affairs, however, is unlikely to last forever. Other interested parties will surely note Uber’s success, draw their own conclusions from it, and attempt to apply whatever lessons they derive to the marketing of their own products and services. If Uber is a confession that the “smart city” is a place we already live in, then, it is also a cautionary case study in the kinds of values we can expect such a city to uphold in its everyday operation — some merely strongly implicit, others right out there in the open. Just what are they?

– Those who can afford to pay more deserve to be treated better." …

– That “better” amounts to a bland generic luxury." …

– Interpersonal exchanges are more appropriately mediated by algorithms than by one’s own competence." …

– "Private enterprise should be valorized over public service provision on principle, even when public alternatives would afford comparable levels of service."



"Quite simply, the city is smaller for people who have access to Uber. The advent of near-effortless, on-demand, point-to-point personal mobility has given them a tesseract with which the occasionally unwieldy envelope of urban space-time can be folded down to something more readily manageable. It’s trivially easy to understand the appeal of this — especially when the night is dark, the bus shelter is cold, the neighborhood is remote, and one is alone.

But as should be clear by now, this power to fold space and time comes at a terrible cost. The four values enumerated above make Uber a prime generator of the patterns of spatialized injustice Stephen Graham has called “software-sorted geographies,” although it does so in a way unencompassed by Graham’s original account. Its ordinary operation injects the urban terrain with a mobile and distributed layer of invidious privilege, a hypersite where practices and values deeply inimical to any meaningful conception of the common wealth are continuously reproduced.

More insidiously yet, these become laminated into journey-planning and other services when they position Uber alongside other options available to the commuter, as simply another tab or item in a pull-down menu. Ethical questions are legislated at the level of interface design, at the hands of engineers and designers so immersed in the privileges of youth and relative wealth, and so inculcated with the values prevalent in their own industry, that they may well not perceive anything about Uber to be objectionable in the slightest. (Notable in this regard are Google Maps and Citymapper, both of which now integrate Uber as a modal option alongside public transit and taxis, and Apple’s App Store, which lists the Uber app as an “Essential.”) Consciously or not, though, every such integration acts to normalize the Randian solipsism, the fratboy misogyny, and the sneering disdain for the very notion of a public good that saturates Uber’s presentation of its identity.

Where innovations in personal mobility could just as easily be designed to extend the right to the city, and to conceive of on-demand access to all points in the urbanized field as a public utility, Uber acts to reinscribe and to actually strengthen existing inequities of access. It is an engine consciously, delicately and expertly tuned to socialize risk and privatize gain. In furtherance of the convenience of a few, it sheds risk on its drivers, its passengers, and the communities within which it operates. If in any way this offering is a harbinger of the network-mediated services we can expect to contend with in the city to come, I believe we are justified in harboring the gravest concern — and, further, in doing whatever we can to render the act of choosing to book a ride with Uber a social faux pas of Google Glass proportions."
2015  uber  adamgreenfield  tranpsportation  politics  technology  mobility  transmobility  inequality  injustice  socialjustice  community  luxury 
july 2015 by robertogreco
Uber, or: The technics and politics of socially corrosive mobility | Speedbird
RT : “To render the act of choosing to book a ride with Uber a social faux pas of Google Glass proportions.”

"If Uber is a confession that the “smart city” is a place we already live in, then, it is also a cautionary case study in the kinds of values we can expect such a city to uphold in its everyday operation — some merely strongly implicit, others right out there in the open. Just what are they?

– Those who can afford to pay more deserve to be treated better.
– That “better” amounts to a bland generic luxury.
– Interpersonal exchanges are more appropriately mediated by algorithms than by one’s own competence.
– Private enterprise should be valorized over public service provision on principle, even when public alternatives would afford comparable levels of service."
inequality  politics  uber  via:adamgreenfield  adamgreenfield  cities  infrastructure  sillyvalley  from twitter_favs
june 2015 by sha
The Internet of Things You Don’t Really Need - The Atlantic
"We already chose to forego a future of unconnected software. All of your devices talk constantly to servers, and your data lives in the Cloud because there’s increasingly no other choice. Eventually, we won’t have unconnected things, either. We’ve made that choice too, we just don’t know it yet. For the moment, you can still buy toasters and refrigerators and thermostats that don’t talk to the Internet, but try to find a new television that doesn’t do so. All new TVs are smart TVs, asking you to agree to murky terms and conditions in the process of connecting to Netflix or Hulu. Soon enough, everything will be like Nest. If the last decade was one of making software require connectivity, the next will be one of making everything else require it. Why? For Silicon Valley, the answer is clear: to turn every industry into the computer industry. To make things talk to the computers in giant, secured, air-conditioned warehouses owned by (or hoping to be owned by) a handful of big technology companies.

But at what cost? What improvements to our lives do we not get because we focused on “smart” things? Writing in The Baffler last year, David Graeber asked where the flying cars, force fields, teleportation pods, space colonies, and all the other dreams of the recent past’s future have gone. His answer: Technological development was re-focused so that it wouldn’t threaten existing seats of power and authority. The Internet of Things exists to build a market around new data about your toasting and grilling and refrigeration habits, while duping you into thinking smart devices are making your lives better than you could have made them otherwise, with materials other than computers. Innovation and disruption are foils meant to distract you from the fact that the present is remarkably similar to the past, with you working even harder for it.

But it sure feels like it makes things easier, doesn’t it? The automated bike locks and thermostats all doing your bidding so you can finally be free to get things done. But what will you do, exactly, once you can monitor your propane tank level from the comfort of the toilet or the garage or the liquor store? Check your Gmail, probably, or type into a Google Doc on your smartphone, maybe. Or perhaps, if you’re really lucky, tap some ideas into Evernote for your Internet of Things startup’s crowdfunding campaign. “It’s gonna be huge,” you’ll tell your cookout guests as you saw into a freshly grilled steak in the cool comfort of your Nest-controlled dining room. “This is the future.”"
2015  ianbogost  iot  internetofthings  design  davidgraeber  labor  siliconvalley  technology  power  authority  innovation  disruption  work  future  past  present  marketing  propaganda  google  cloud  cloudcomputing  computers  code  googledocs  ubicomp  ubiquitouscomputing  everyware  adamgreenfield  amazon  dropbox  kickstarter 
june 2015 by robertogreco
The truth about smart cities: ‘In the end, they will destroy democracy' | Cities | The Guardian
"The smart city is, to many urban thinkers, just a buzzphrase that has outlived its usefulness: ‘the wrong idea pitched in the wrong way to the wrong people’. So why did that happen – and what’s coming in its place?"



"In truth, competing visions of the smart city are proxies for competing visions of society, and in particular about who holds power in society. “In the end, the smart city will destroy democracy,” Hollis warns. “Like Google, they’ll have enough data not to have to ask you what you want.”

You sometimes see in the smart city’s prophets a kind of casual assumption that politics as we know it is over. One enthusiastic presenter at the Future Cities Summit went so far as to say, with a shrug: “Internet eats everything, and internet will eat government.” In another presentation, about a new kind of “autocatalytic paint” for street furniture that “eats” noxious pollutants such as nitrous oxide, an engineer in a video clip complained: “No one really owns pollution as a problem.” Except that national and local governments do already own pollution as a problem, and have the power to tax and regulate it. Replacing them with smart paint ain’t necessarily the smartest thing to do.

And while some tech-boosters celebrate the power of companies such as Über – the smartphone-based unlicensed-taxi service now banned in Spain and New Delhi, and being sued in several US states – to “disrupt” existing transport infrastructure, Hill asks reasonably: “That Californian ideology that underlies that user experience, should it really be copy-pasted all over the world? Let’s not throw away the idea of universal service that Transport for London adheres to.”

Perhaps the smartest of smart city projects needn’t depend exclusively – or even at all – on sensors and computers. At Future Cities, Julia Alexander of Siemens nominated as one of the “smartest” cities in the world the once-notorious Medellin in Colombia, site of innumerable gang murders a few decades ago. Its problem favelas were reintegrated into the city not with smartphones but with publicly funded sports facilities and a cable car connecting them to the city. “All of a sudden,” Alexander said, “you’ve got communities interacting” in a way they never had before. Last year, Medellin – now the oft-cited poster child for “social urbanism” – was named the most innovative city in the world by the Urban Land Institute.

One sceptical observer of many presentations at the Future Cities Summit, Jonathan Rez of the University of New South Wales, suggests that “a smarter way” to build cities “might be for architects and urban planners to have psychologists and ethnographers on the team.” That would certainly be one way to acquire a better understanding of what technologists call the “end user” – in this case, the citizen. After all, as one of the tribunes asks the crowd in Shakespeare’s Coriolanus: “What is the city but the people?”"
smartcities  cities  surveillance  technology  stevenpoole  democracy  2014  usmanhaque  danhill  adamgreenfield  songdo  medellín  leohollis  urbanurbanism  data  internetofthings  networkedobjects  californianideology  juliaalexander  communities  medellin  colombia  iot 
january 2015 by robertogreco
The Nonhuman Autonomous Space Agency
"The Nonhuman Autonomous Space Agency is a network of robotic and biological systems, tied together by exchanges in the material and attention economies. One set of probes searches the asteroid belt for resources drifting in the solar wind like giant flowers. Another set, made from modified classic spacecraft, uses its manufacturing and fabrication capacity to shape those resources. Together they build and nurture the habitats for animals and robots, while the whole process can be followed on social media from Earth, all mediated by servers on the Moon."



"The Nonhuman Autonomous Space Agency is a research project from the Working-Group on Adaptive Systems.

Selected prints and three dimensional artifacts from this series are available for exhibition, for more information, please contact sevensixfive ~at~ gmail ~dot~ com.

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Further Reading
When Species Meet, Donna Haraway
The Botany of Desire, Michael Pollan
Space Settlements: a Design Study, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Modernity Unbound, Detlef Mertins
Lesabéndio, an Asteroid Novel, Paul Scheerbart
Enduring Innocence, Keller Easterling

Special Thanks
Bryan Boyer, Keller Easterling, Anne Galloway, Marian Glebes, Adam Greenfield, and John Powers"



[http://cargocollective.com/nonhumanagency/How-to-Get-Involved ]

"The Nonhuman Autonomous Space Agency is an open world project. If you have an idea for an image, story, comic book, toy, scenario, or any other media, narrative or not that explores the interaction between nonhuman Earthlings in space exploration and colonization, please get in touch and share it at sevensixfive ~at~ gmail ~dot~ com"
fredscharmen  multispeciesdesign  donnaharaway  space  nonhumanautonomousspaceagency  johnpowers  adamgreenfield  marianglebes  annegalloway  kellereasterling  bryanboyer  michaelpollan  nasa  datlefmertins  paulscheerbart  adaptivesystems  posthumanism 
january 2015 by robertogreco
3. Dispatch for 01 04 2015
"Unless we want a culture that's entirely made of chiptune music, reaction GIFs, CLEVAR acts of Star Wars mashup/parody/fanwank, CLEVAR bon mots on social media, and other artifacts that can be produced entirely solo, by people whose equipment takes up no more space than a laptop, we need to find a way to preserve the spaces and services required by people collectively engaged in acts of creation. This, mind you, is entirely separate from the question of cheap housing as a simple matter of economic justice, which is surely still more urgent. But I don't want genuinely creative communities to get left out of the equation, either."
adamgreenfield  urbanism  culture  supportstructures  creativity 
january 2015 by sha
The smartest cities rely on citizen cunning and unglamorous technology | Cities | The Guardian
"Ignore the futuristic visions of governments and developers, it’s humble urban communities who lead the way in showing how networked technologies can strengthen a city’s social fabric"



"We are lucky enough to live at a time in which a furious wave of innovation is breaking across the cities of the global south, spurred on both by the blistering pace of urbanisation, and by the rising popular demand for access to high-quality infrastructure that follows in its wake.

From Porto Alegre’s participatory budgeting and the literally destratifying cable cars of Caracas, to Nairobi’s “digital matatus” and the repurposed bus-ferries of Manila, the communities of the south are responsible for an ever-lengthening parade of social and technical innovations that rival anything the developed world has to offer for ingenuity and practical utility.

Nor is India an exception to this tendency. Transparent Chennai’s participatory maps and the work of the Mumbai-based practices CRIT and URBZ are better-known globally, but it is the tactics of daily survival devised by the unheralded multitude that really inspire urbanists. These techniques maximise the transactive capacity of the urban fabric, wrest the very last increment of value from the energy invested in the production of manufactured goods, and allow millions to eke a living, however precarious, from the most unpromising of circumstances. At a time of vertiginously spiralling economic and environmental stress globally, these are insights many of us in the developed north would be well advised to attend to – and by no means merely the poorest among us.

But, for whatever reason, this is not the face of urban innovation official India wants to share with the world – perhaps small-scale projects or the tactics of the poor simply aren’t dramatic enough to convey the magnitude and force of national ambition. We hear, instead, of schemes like Palava City, a nominally futuristic vision of digital technology minutely interwoven into the texture of everday urban life. Headlines were made around the planet this year when Narendra Modi’s government announced it had committed to building no fewer than 100 similarly “smart” cities.

Because definitions of the smart city remain so vague, I think it’s worth thinking carefully about what this might mean – beyond, that is, the 7,000 billion rupees (£70bn) in financing that India’s high powered expert committee on urban infrastructure believes the scheme will require over the next 20 years. It is one thing, after all, to reinforce the basic infrastructures that undergird the quality of urban life everywhere; quite another to propose saddling India’s cities with expensive, untested technology at a time when reliable access to electricity, clean drinking water or safe sanitary facilities remain beyond reach for too many.

We can take it as read that our networked technologies will continue to play some fairly considerable role in shaping the circumstances and possibilities experienced by billions of city-dwellers worldwide. So it’s only appropriate to consider the ways in which these technologies might inform decisions about urban land use, mobility and governance.

However, especially at a time of such enthusiasm for the notion in India, I think it’s vital to point out that “the smart city” is not the only way of bringing advanced information technology to bear on these questions of urban life. It’s but one selection from a sheaf of available possibilities, and not anywhere near the most responsive, equitable or fructifying among them.

We can see this most easily by considering just who it is the smart city is intended for – by seeking to discover what model of urban subjectivity is inscribed in the scenarios offered by the multinational IT vendors that developed the smart city concept in the first place, and who are heavily involved in sites like Palava. When you examine their internal documentation, marketing materials and extant interventions, it becomes evident there is a pronounced way of thinking about the civic that is bound up in all of them, with rather grim implications for the politics of participation.

A close reading leaves little room for doubt that vendors like Microsoft, IBM, Siemens, Cisco and Hitachi construct the resident of the smart city as someone without agency; merely a passive consumer of municipal services – at best, perhaps, a generator of data that can later be aggregated, mined for relevant inference, and acted upon. Should he or she attempt to practise democracy in any form that spills on to the public way, the smart city has no way of accounting for this activity other than interpreting it as an untoward disruption to the orderly flow of circulation. (This is explicit in Palava’s marketing materials, as well.) All in all, it’s a brutally reductive conception of civic life, and one with little to offer those of us whose notions of citizenhood are more robust."



"The true enablers of participation turn out to be nothing more exciting than cheap commodity devices, reliable access to sufficiently high- bandwidth connectivity, and generic cloud services. These implications should be carefully mulled over by developers, those responsible for crafting municipal and national policy, and funding bodies in the philanthropic sector.

In both these cases, ordinary people used technologies of connection to help them steer their own affairs, not merely managing complex domains to a minimal threshold of competence, but outperforming the official bodies formally entrusted with their stewardship. This presents us with the intriguing prospect that more of the circumstances of everyday urban life might be managed this way, on a participatory basis, by autonomous neighbourhood groups networked with one another in something amounting to a city-wide federation.

In order to understand how we might get there from here, we need to invoke a notion drawn from the study of dynamic systems. Metastability is the idea that there are multiple stable configurations a system can assume within a larger possibility space; the shape that system takes at the moment may simply be one among many that are potentially available to it. Seen in this light, it’s clear that all the paraphernalia we regard as the sign and substance of government may in fact merely constitute what a dynamicist would think of as a “local maximum”. There remain available to us other possible states, in which we might connect to one another in different ways, giving rise to different implications, different conceptions of urban citizenship, and profoundly different outcomes.

The sociologist Bruno Latour warns us not to speak airily of “potential”, reminding us that we have to actually do the work of bringing some state of affairs into being before we can know whether it was indeed a possible future state of the system – and also that work is never accomplished without some cost. I nevertheless believe, given the very substantial benefits we know people and communities enjoy when afforded real control over the conditions of their being, that whatever the cost incurred in this exploration, it would be one well worth bearing.

The evidence before us strongly suggests that investment in the unglamorous technologies, frameworks and infrastructures that are already known to underwrite citizen participation would result in better outcomes for tens of millions of ordinary Indians – and would shoulder the state with far-less onerous a financial burden – than investment in the high-tech chimeras of centralised control. The wisest course would be to plan technological interventions to come on the understanding that the true intelligence of the Indian city will continue to reside where it always has: in the people who live and work in it, who animate it and give it a voice."

[See also: http://boingboing.net/2014/12/24/why-smart-cities-should-be.html ]
2014  adamgreenfield  urban  urbanism  collectivism  cities  innovation  smartcities  chennai  caracas  nairobi  portoalegre  digitalmatatus  manila  infrastructure  palavacity  technology  power  control  democracy  ows  occupywallstreet  urbz  crit  transparency  occupysandy  nyc  elcampodecebada  madrid  zuloark  zuloarkcollective  collectives  twitter  facebook  troughofdisallusionment  darkweather  networks  internetofpeople  brunolatour  grassroots  systems  systemsthinking  metastability  dynamicsystems 
december 2014 by robertogreco
Monthly Talk - Adam Greenfield - YouTube
DYSTOPIA IN BAD FAITH
"all dystopia means is that we should experience in comfort for a couple of hours the conditions that our way of life forces others to endure.

i believe that pleasure is an essentially masturbatory frisson, but i believe it's coming our way. it's our turn"

"if there is any enemy of optimism, it's not pessimism. it's hope. we must kill hope if we are to discover optimism. we've got to anchor our optimism in the real."
dystopia  via:debcha  adamgreenfield  future  sparkfile  quotes  talks  ufd2014 
october 2014 by sha

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