absolute-relative   48

Eliminative materialism - Wikipedia
Eliminative materialism (also called eliminativism) is the claim that people's common-sense understanding of the mind (or folk psychology) is false and that certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.[1] It is a materialist position in the philosophy of mind. Some supporters of eliminativism argue that no coherent neural basis will be found for many everyday psychological concepts such as belief or desire, since they are poorly defined. Rather, they argue that psychological concepts of behaviour and experience should be judged by how well they reduce to the biological level.[2] Other versions entail the non-existence of conscious mental states such as pain and visual perceptions.[3]

Eliminativism about a class of entities is the view that that class of entities does not exist.[4] For example, materialism tends to be eliminativist about the soul; modern chemists are eliminativist about phlogiston; and modern physicists are eliminativist about the existence of luminiferous aether. Eliminative materialism is the relatively new (1960s–1970s) idea that certain classes of mental entities that common sense takes for granted, such as beliefs, desires, and the subjective sensation of pain, do not exist.[5][6] The most common versions are eliminativism about propositional attitudes, as expressed by Paul and Patricia Churchland,[7] and eliminativism about qualia (subjective interpretations about particular instances of subjective experience), as expressed by Daniel Dennett and Georges Rey.[3] These philosophers often appeal to an introspection illusion.

In the context of materialist understandings of psychology, eliminativism stands in opposition to reductive materialism which argues that mental states as conventionally understood do exist, and that they directly correspond to the physical state of the nervous system.[8][need quotation to verify] An intermediate position is revisionary materialism, which will often argue that the mental state in question will prove to be somewhat reducible to physical phenomena—with some changes needed to the common sense concept.

Since eliminative materialism claims that future research will fail to find a neuronal basis for various mental phenomena, it must necessarily wait for science to progress further. One might question the position on these grounds, but other philosophers like Churchland argue that eliminativism is often necessary in order to open the minds of thinkers to new evidence and better explanations.[8]
concept  conceptual-vocab  philosophy  ideology  thinking  metameta  weird  realness  psychology  cog-psych  neurons  neuro  brain-scan  reduction  complex-systems  cybernetics  wiki  reference  parallax  truth  dennett  within-without  the-self  subjective-objective  absolute-relative  deep-materialism  new-religion  identity  analytical-holistic  systematic-ad-hoc  science  theory-practice  theory-of-mind  applicability-prereqs  nihil  lexical 
april 2018 by nhaliday
Overcoming Bias : The Model to Beat: Status Rank
People often presume that policy can mostly ignore income inequality if key individual outcomes like health or happiness depend mainly on individual income. Yes, there’s some room for promoting insurance against income risk, but not much room. However, people often presume that policy should pay a lot more attention to inequality if individual outcomes depend more directly on the income of others, such as via envy or discouragement.

However, there’s a simple and plausible income interdependence scenario where inequality matters little for policy: when outcomes depend on rank. If individual outcomes are a function of each person’s percentile income rank, and if social welfare just adds up those individual outcomes, then income policy becomes irrelevant, because this social welfare sum is guaranteed to always add up to the same constant. Income-related policy may influence outcomes via other channels, but not via this channel. This applies whether the relevant rank is global, comparing each person to the entire world, or local, comparing each person only to a local community.

That 2010 paper, by Christopher Boyce, Gordon Brown, and Simon Moore, makes a strong case that in fact the outcome of life satisfaction depends on the incomes of others only via income rank. (Two followup papers find the same result for outcomes of psychological distress and nine measures of health.) They looked at 87,000 Brits, and found that while income rank strongly predicted outcomes, neither individual (log) income nor an average (log) income of their reference group predicted outcomes, after controlling for rank (and also for age, gender, education, marital status, children, housing ownership, labor-force status, and disabilities). These seem to me remarkably strong and robust results. (Confirmed here.)
ratty  hanson  commentary  study  summary  economics  psychology  social-psych  values  envy  inequality  status  s-factor  absolute-relative  compensation  money  ranking  local-global  emotion  meaningness  planning  long-term  stylized-facts  britain  health  biases  farmers-and-foragers  redistribution  moments  metrics  replication  happy-sad 
march 2018 by nhaliday
Uniformitarianism - Wikipedia
Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity,[1] is the assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere.[2][3] It refers to invariance in the principles underpinning science, such as the constancy of causality, or causation, throughout time,[4] but it has also been used to describe invariance of physical laws through time and space.[5] Though an unprovable postulate that cannot be verified using the scientific method, uniformitarianism has been a key first principle of virtually all fields of science.[6]

In geology, uniformitarianism has included the gradualistic concept that "the present is the key to the past" (that events occur at the same rate now as they have always done); many geologists now, however, no longer hold to a strict theory of gradualism.[7] Coined by William Whewell, the word was proposed in contrast to catastrophism[8] by British naturalists in the late 18th century, starting with the work of the geologist James Hutton. Hutton's work was later refined by scientist John Playfair and popularised by geologist Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology in 1830.[9] Today, Earth's history is considered to have been a slow, gradual process, punctuated by occasional natural catastrophic events.
concept  axioms  jargon  homo-hetero  wiki  reference  science  the-trenches  philosophy  invariance  universalism-particularism  time  spatial  religion  christianity  theos  contradiction  noble-lie  thinking  metabuch  reason  rigidity  flexibility  analytical-holistic  systematic-ad-hoc  degrees-of-freedom  absolute-relative  n-factor  explanans  the-great-west-whale  occident  sinosphere  orient  truth  earth  conceptual-vocab  metameta  history  early-modern  britain  anglo  anglosphere  roots  forms-instances  volo-avolo  deep-materialism  new-religion  logos 
january 2018 by nhaliday
Is the speed of light really constant?
So what if the speed of light isn’t the same when moving toward or away from us? Are there any observable consequences? Not to the limits of observation so far. We know, for example, that any one-way speed of light is independent of the motion of the light source to 2 parts in a billion. We know it has no effect on the color of the light emitted to a few parts in 1020. Aspects such as polarization and interference are also indistinguishable from standard relativity. But that’s not surprising, because you don’t need to assume isotropy for relativity to work. In the 1970s, John Winnie and others showed that all the results of relativity could be modeled with anisotropic light so long as the two-way speed was a constant. The “extra” assumption that the speed of light is a uniform constant doesn’t change the physics, but it does make the mathematics much simpler. Since Einstein’s relativity is the simpler of two equivalent models, it’s the model we use. You could argue that it’s the right one citing Occam’s razor, or you could take Newton’s position that anything untestable isn’t worth arguing over.

SPECIAL RELATIVITY WITHOUT ONE-WAY VELOCITY ASSUMPTIONS:
https://sci-hub.bz/https://www.jstor.org/stable/186029
https://sci-hub.bz/https://www.jstor.org/stable/186671
nibble  scitariat  org:bleg  physics  relativity  electromag  speed  invariance  absolute-relative  curiosity  philosophy  direction  gedanken  axioms  definition  models  experiment  space  science  measurement  volo-avolo  synchrony  uniqueness  multi  pdf  piracy  study  article 
november 2017 by nhaliday
[1509.02504] Electric charge in hyperbolic motion: The early history and other geometrical aspects
We revisit the early work of Minkowski and Sommerfeld concerning hyperbolic motion, and we describe some geometrical aspects of the electrodynamic interaction. We discuss the advantages of a time symmetric formulation in which the material points are replaced by infinitesimal length elements.

SPACE AND TIME: An annotated, illustrated edition of Hermann Minkowski's revolutionary essay: http://web.mit.edu/redingtn/www/netadv/SP20130311.html
nibble  preprint  papers  org:mat  physics  electromag  relativity  exposition  history  mostly-modern  pre-ww2  science  the-trenches  discovery  intricacy  classic  explanation  einstein  giants  plots  manifolds  article  multi  liner-notes  org:junk  org:edu  absolute-relative 
november 2017 by nhaliday
general relativity - What if the universe is rotating as a whole? - Physics Stack Exchange
To find out whether the universe is rotating, in principle the most straightforward test is to watch the motion of a gyroscope relative to the distant galaxies. If it rotates at an angular velocity -ω relative to them, then the universe is rotating at angular velocity ω. In practice, we do not have mechanical gyroscopes with small enough random and systematic errors to put a very low limit on ω. However, we can use the entire solar system as a kind of gyroscope. Solar-system observations put a model-independent upper limit of 10^-7 radians/year on the rotation,[Clemence 1957] which is an order of magnitude too lax to rule out the Gödel metric.
nibble  q-n-a  overflow  physics  relativity  gedanken  direction  absolute-relative  big-picture  space  experiment  measurement  volo-avolo 
november 2017 by nhaliday
Review of Yuval Harari's Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind.
https://twitter.com/whyvert/status/928472237052649472
https://archive.is/MPO5Q
Yuval Harari's prominent book Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind gets a thorough and well deserved fisking by C.R. Hallpike.

For Harari the great innovation that separated us from the apes was what he calls the Cognitive Revolution, around 70,000 years ago when we started migrating out of Africa, which he thinks gave us the same sort of modern minds that we have now. 'At the individual level, ancient foragers were the most knowledgeable and skilful people in history...Survival in that area required superb mental abilities from everyone' (55), and 'The people who carved the Stadel lion-man some 30,000 years ago had the same physical, emotional, and intellectual abilities we have' (44). Not surprisingly, then, 'We'd be able to explain to them everything we know - from the adventures of Alice in Wonderland to the paradoxes of quantum physics - and they could teach us how their people view the world' (23).

It's a sweet idea, and something like this imagined meeting actually took place a few years ago between the linguist Daniel Everett and the Piraha foragers of the Amazon in Peru (Everett 2008). But far from being able to discuss quantum theory with them, he found that the Piraha couldn't even count, and had no numbers of any kind, They could teach Everett how they saw the world, which was entirely confined to the immediate experience of the here-and-now, with no interest in past or future, or really in anything that could not be seen or touched. They had no myths or stories, so Alice in Wonderland would have fallen rather flat as well.

...

Summing up the book as a whole, one has often had to point out how surprisingly little he seems to have read on quite a number of essential topics. It would be fair to say that whenever his facts are broadly correct they are not new, and whenever he tries to strike out on his own he often gets things wrong, sometimes seriously. So we should not judge Sapiens as a serious contribution to knowledge but as 'infotainment', a publishing event to titillate its readers by a wild intellectual ride across the landscape of history, dotted with sensational displays of speculation, and ending with blood-curdling predictions about human destiny. By these criteria it is a most successful book.
pdf  books  review  expert-experience  critique  sapiens  history  antiquity  anthropology  multi  twitter  social  scitariat  commentary  quotes  attaq  westminster  backup  culture  realness  farmers-and-foragers  language  egalitarianism-hierarchy  inequality  learning  absolute-relative  malthus  tribalism  kinship  leviathan  government  leadership  volo-avolo  social-structure  taxes  studying  technology  religion  theos  sequential  universalism-particularism  antidemos  revolution  enlightenment-renaissance-restoration-reformation  science  europe  the-great-west-whale  age-of-discovery  iron-age  mediterranean  the-classics  reason  empirical  experiment  early-modern  islam  MENA  civic  institutions  the-trenches  innovation  agriculture  gnon 
november 2017 by nhaliday
Inferior Faunas | West Hunter
I mentioned South American paleontologists defending the honor of their extinct animals, and pointed  out how stupid that is. There are many similar cases: Jefferson vs Buffon on the wimpiness of North American mammals (as a reader pointed out),  biologists defending the prowess of marsupials in Australia (a losing proposition) , etc.

So, we need to establish the relative competitive abilities of different faunas and settle this, once and for all.

Basically, the smaller and more isolated, the less competitive.  Pretty much true for both plants and animals.

Islands do poorly. Not just dodos: Hawaiian species, for example, are generally losers: everything from outside is a threat.

something hidden: https://westhunt.wordpress.com/2014/12/01/something-hidden/
I’m wondering of any of the Meridiungulata lineages did survive, unnoticed because they’re passing for insectivores or rats or whatever, just as tenrecs and golden moles did. . Obviously the big ones are extinct, probably the others as well, but until we’ve looked at the DNA of every little mammal in South America, the possibility exists.
west-hunter  scitariat  rant  discussion  ideas  nature  bio  archaeology  egalitarianism-hierarchy  absolute-relative  ranking  world  correlation  scale  oceans  geography  measure  network-structure  list  lol  speculation  latin-america  usa  convergence 
october 2017 by nhaliday
Taboo Issues in Social Science: Questioning Conventional Wisdom
sample of book

1 Postmodernism, Political Correctness and the Tyranny of the Academy 17
2 Feminism: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly 39
3 Whiteness Studies and Racist Amerikkka 59
4 Ideological Battles over Human Nature 79
5 Social Constructionism and Gender 99
6 Race: A Dangerous Concept? 119
7 Politics and Personality: Callous Conservatives and Loving Liberals? 139
8 Capitalism and Socialism: The Devil’s Dung versus Satan’s Spore 161
9 Socioeconomic Success: Talent Plus Effort or White Privilege? 181
10 Cultural Relativism, Multiculturalism, Violence, and Human Rights 201
11 “Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics:” Crime and Justice 223
12 Culture, Constitution, and Government 243
pdf  books  essay  rhetoric  social-science  academia  sociology  criminology  crime  westminster  race  identity-politics  truth  gender  politics  personality  psychology  social-psych  capitalism  communism  left-wing  diversity  absolute-relative  biases  🎩  class  economics  ideology  egalitarianism-hierarchy  envy  biodet  realness  epistemic 
october 2017 by nhaliday

related tags

academia  adversarial  age-generation  age-of-discovery  agriculture  ai-control  ai  albion  alien-character  altruism  analytical-holistic  anarcho-tyranny  anglo  anglosphere  announcement  anthropology  antidemos  antiquity  aphorism  apollonian-dionysian  applicability-prereqs  approximation  archaeology  aristos  article  asia  atoms  attaq  attention  authoritarianism  autism  axioms  backup  baez  beauty  behavioral-econ  biases  big-peeps  big-picture  bio  biodet  books  brain-scan  britain  broad-econ  buddhism  canon  capitalism  causation  chart  checking  china  christianity  civic  civil-liberty  civilization  clarity  class  classic  clown-world  cog-psych  cohesion  cold-war  commentary  communication  communism  comparison  compensation  complex-systems  concept  conceptual-vocab  contradiction  contrarianism  convergence  cool  cooperate-defect  coordination  correlation  cost-benefit  counter-revolution  crime  criminology  critique  crooked  cultural-dynamics  culture-war  culture  curiosity  current-events  cybernetics  cycles  data  database  death  debate  decision-making  deep-materialism  definition  degrees-of-freedom  demographics  dennett  developing-world  differential  dignity  dimensionality  direction  discovery  discrimination  discussion  diversity  douthatish  drama  duty  early-modern  earth  eastern-europe  econ-metrics  economics  econotariat  eden-heaven  effect-size  egalitarianism-hierarchy  einstein  electromag  emotion  empirical  ends-means  enlightenment-renaissance-restoration-reformation  environment  envy  epigenetics  epistemic  essay  essence-existence  estimate  ethics  ethnocentrism  eu  europe  evidence-based  evopsych  exit-voice  experiment  expert-experience  explanans  explanation  exploratory  exposition  farmers-and-foragers  finiteness  flexibility  flux-stasis  focus  food  foreign-lang  formal-values  forms-instances  gallic  garett-jones  gbooks  gedanken  gender-diff  gender  geography  geometry  giants  gibbon  gnon  good-evil  government  gravity  ground-up  gt-101  haidt  hanson  happy-sad  harvard  hate  health  heterodox  hidden-motives  higher-ed  history  hmm  homo-hetero  honor  houellebecq  hypocrisy  ideas  identity-politics  identity  ideology  impetus  impro  increase-decrease  india  individualism-collectivism  inequality  inference  info-dynamics  innovation  insight  instinct  institutions  intelligence  interests  intervention  interview  intricacy  intuition  invariance  iq  iron-age  is-ought  islam  isteveish  japan  jargon  journos-pundits  judgement  justice  kinship  knowledge  korea  language  latent-variables  latin-america  leadership  learning  left-wing  lens  lesswrong  letters  leviathan  lexical  liner-notes  linguistics  links  list  literature  local-global  logic  logos  lol  long-term  longevity  longform  love-hate  madisonian  magnitude  male-variability  malthus  manifolds  maps  marginal  markets  mathtariat  matrix-factorization  meaningness  measure  measurement  mechanics  media  medicine  medieval  mediterranean  mena  meta-analysis  meta:research  meta:rhetoric  metabuch  metameta  methodology  metrics  micro  mindful  models  modernity  moments  money  morality  mostly-modern  multi  murray  myth  n-factor  nascent-state  nature  navigation  neocons  network-structure  neuro  neurons  new-religion  news  nibble  nietzschean  nihil  noble-lie  nostalgia  novelty  obama  objektbuch  occident  oceans  old-anglo  optimate  order-disorder  org:bleg  org:edu  org:foreign  org:junk  org:lite  org:mag  org:mat  org:nat  org:ngo  org:popup  org:rec  org:sci  org:theos  organizing  orient  orwellian  oscillation  overflow  paleocon  papers  parable  paradox  parallax  patho-altruism  paying-rent  pdf  peace-violence  people  personality  phalanges  philosophy  physics  pic  piracy  planning  plots  poast  polarization  polisci  political-econ  politics  pop-diff  popsci  population  postmortem  pre-ww2  prediction  preference-falsification  prejudice  preprint  primitivism  pro-rata  prof  profile  propaganda  protestant-catholic  prudence  pseudoe  psych-architecture  psychiatry  psychology  psychometrics  public-goodish  q-n-a  quixotic  quiz  quotes  race  randy-ayndy  ranking  rant  rationality  ratty  realness  reason  redistribution  reduction  reference  reflection  regularizer  relativity  religion  replication  retention  review  revolution  rhetoric  right-wing  rigidity  risk  ritual  roots  rot  russia  s-factor  sanctity-degradation  sapiens  scale  science  scitariat  self-interest  sequential  series  sex  sexuality  signaling  sinosphere  sky  slippery-slope  social-norms  social-psych  social-science  social-structure  social  sociality  society  sociology  solzhenitsyn  space  spatial  spearhead  speculation  speed  spreading  ssc  state  status  stereotypes  stoic  stories  straussian  stream  study  studying  stylized-facts  subjective-objective  success  summary  symmetry  synchrony  systematic-ad-hoc  tactics  taxes  technology  techtariat  telos-atelos  tetlock  the-classics  the-great-west-whale  the-monster  the-self  the-south  the-trenches  theory-of-mind  theory-practice  theos  things  thinking  time  tools  toxoplasmosis  track-record  tradeoffs  tradition  trends  tribalism  trust  truth  twitter  unaffiliated  unintended-consequences  uniqueness  universalism-particularism  us-them  usa  values  virtu  visualization  visuo  volo-avolo  wealth  weird  west-hunter  westminster  whiggish-hegelian  wiki  within-without  wonkish  world  writing  yvain  zeitgeist  zero-positive-sum  🌞  🎩  🐸  👽  🔬 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: