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Dilution of whisky – the molecular perspective | Scientific Reports
Whisky is a spirit that is produced in an extended process consisting of distillation of fermented grains, ageing and dilution. It is through this process that the distinctive taste of whisky develops. Distilled malt whiskies typically contain around 70% alcohol by volume (vol-%) before it is aged in barrels for at least three years. Some alcohol evaporates during the maturation resulting in an alcohol content of 55–65 vol-% of cask-strength whisky. Before bottling, the whisky is diluted to around 40 vol-% by the addition of water1, which changes the taste significantly. Whisky enthusiasts often also add a few drops of water to the spirit before drinking in order to further enhance the taste. Apart from water and alcohols, whiskies contain different organic compounds that contribute to their taste2. Many whiskies, especially those that are made on the Scottish island of Isley, have a typical smoky taste that develops when malted barley is smoked on peat fire. Chemically, the smoky flavour is attributed to phenols, and in particular guaiacol, which is much more common in Scottish whiskies than in American or Irish ones3, 4. Guaiacol is a small and mostly hydrophobic molecule that is able to interact with polar solvents via hydrogen-bonding and polar-aromatic interactions. Higher concentrations of guaiacol have been found in Scottish whiskies than in American and Irish ones. The concentration of guaiacol was found by GC/MS to be 3.7–4.1 mg L−1, or about 3.2·10−5 M in two undisclosed Scottish whiskies5. It is likely that the concentration of guaiacol in Isley whiskies is even higher. Yet, how diluting whisky with water affects its taste is not clear.
chemistry  food  science  research  interesting 
yesterday by rmohns
Time to pop an anti-ageing pill
It’s no longer snake oil. Scientists have a pipeline full of promising anti-ageing compounds just waiting for human trials. Elizabeth Finkel reports.
science  health 
yesterday by davidmerrique
At Last, a Big, Successful Trial of Probiotics - The Atlantic
At Last, a Big, Successful Trial of Probiotics
A large Indian study of 4,500 newborn babies found that the right microbes can prevent a life-threatening condition called sepsis.
science  medical-research 
yesterday by HighCharisma
ollieharm — Deep Survival: True Stories of Miraculous...
RT : Deep Survival: True Stories of Miraculous Endurance and Sudden Death (Unabridged) - Laurence ...
Science  from twitter
yesterday by heyyouapp
Why are some people “carboholics”?
I’m not surprised Taubes wrote this article, but I am surprised the New York Times published it.  It might seem like fun and games to publish provocative speculation written by people who seem incapable of doing a Google Scholar search, but pieces like this can harm the public understanding of health science, with potentially serious consequences.  How hard is it to run a piece like this by a few experts– people who are truly knowledgeable about the subject?  
research  science  taubes  lowcarb  nutrition 
yesterday by lena

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