21stc   318

« earlier    

(URL is a pff) Greg Clark & Neil Cummins - Surnames and Social Mobility, Human Nature (2015)
Surnames and Social Mobility
Gregory Clark1 Neil Cummins2
To what extent do parental characteristics explain child social outcomes? Typically, parent-child correlations in socioeconomic measures are in the range 0.2-0.6. Surname evidence suggests, however, that the intergenerational correlation of overall status is much higher. This paper shows, using educational status in England 1170-2012 as an example, that the true underlying correlation of social status is in the range 0.75-0.85. Social status is more strongly inherited even than height. This correlation is constant over centuries, suggesting an underlying social physics surprisingly immune to government intervention. Social mobility in England in 2012 is little greater than in pre-industrial times. Surname evidence in other countries suggests similarly slow underlying mobility rates.
KEYWORDS: Social Mobility, intergenerational correlation, status inheritance
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
status  Europe-Early_Modern  article  downloaded  surnames  statistics  17thC  British_history  16thC  mobility  Industrial_Revolution  19thC  inheritance  demography  21stC  20thC  18thC  medieval_history 
february 2017 by dunnettreader
Noah Smith - The Illusion of Lagging Productivity | Bloomberg View - August 2016
Re Dietrich Vollrath's recent posts on how part of it may be statistical illusion from industry collecting rents due to increased industry concentration, IP etc., which makes the stats on production look too capital-heavy.
economic_growth  US_economy  21stC  2010s  productivity  rents  rent-seeking  competition  statistics  from instapaper
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Philip Ball, The Water Kingdom: A Secret History of China – review - The Guardian - August 2016
Tourists watch floodwaters gushing out of the Xiaolangdi dam during a sand-washing operation of the Yellow river in Jiyuan, China, 2010.Photograph: Miao… Useless review the only thing mentioned is "thorough" - since the reviewer was only interested in China's history of millenia dominated by water politics, one assumes that if Ball had made a hash of it, the faults would have been mentioned - and since Ball is an excellent writer of non-fiction, the assumption is the book must be pretty good
Instapaper  books  kindle-available  Chinese_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Confucianism  Daoism  Asian_philosophy  China-governance  political_culture  political_economy  ancient_history  Chinese_politics  China  water  infrastructure  agriculture  economic_sociology  economic_history  social_order  hierarchy  institutions  institutional_capacity  transport  rivers  environment  pollution  industrialization  from instapaper
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Iryna Stewen & Mathias Hoffmann - Holes in the Dike: the global savings glut, US house prices & the long shadow of banking deregulation (2015 wp)
Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association in its series Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy with number 112834. -- Abstract -- We explore empirically how capital inflows into the US and financial deregulation within the United States interacted in driving the run-up (and subsequent decline) in US housing prices over the period 1990-2010. To obtain an ex ante measure of financial liberalization, we focus on the history of interstate-banking deregulation during the 1980s, i.e. prior to the large net capital inflows into the US from China and other emerging economies. Our results suggest a long shadow of deregulation: in states that opened their banking markets to out-of-state banks earlier, house prices were more sensitive to capital inflows. We provide evidence that global imbalances were a major positive funding shock for US wide banks: different from local banks, these banks held a geographically diversified portfolio of mortgages which allowed them to tap the global demand for safe assets by issuing private-label safe assets backed by the country-wide US housing market. This, in turn, allowed them to expand mortgage lending and lower interest rates, driving up housing prices. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
banking  financial_crisis  deregulation  US_economy  downloaded  financial_regulation  global_imbalance  capital_markets  post-Cold_War  financial_system  interstate_banking  savings  house_prices  securitization  financial_innovation  interest_rates  mortgages  international_finance  capital_flows  community_banks  paper  21stC  economic_history  competition-interstate  NBFI 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
William F. Maloney, Felipe Valencia Caicedo - Economic Activity in the Americas- A landscape that Columbus would recognise | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal -June 2016
14 June 2016
The persistence of economic fortune over the long run has been the subject of intense research. This column investigates the persistence of patterns of economic activity in the Americas at the sub-national level over the last half millennium. The location of today’s prosperous cities and regions within each country is closely correlated with the location of indigenous population centres before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. Policymakers seeking to make radical changes in the spatial distribution of economic activity should be mindful of the centuries-old, even pre-colonial, forces working against them. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
21stC  North_America  transport  geography  18thC  economic_history  paper  indigenous_peoples  agriculture  17thC  urbanization  19thC  downloaded  Latin_America  20thC  16thC  colonial_era  transport-overland 
june 2016 by dunnettreader
What a difference 400 years makes: the London skyline 1616 v 2016 – interactive - The Guardian - March 2016
Fifty years before the centre of London was destroyed by the Great Fire, Dutch draughtsman Claes Jansz Visscher’s captured it in his 1616 engraving, View of London – a low-rise cityscape dominated by church spires and steeples. Now the artist Robin Reynolds has updated that classic view for the present day, recreating Visscher’s perspective as closely as possible, but detailing the London riverside of 2016. -- At London Guildhall until November 2016
17thC  21stC  architecture  urbanization  London 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Palley, Rochon and Vernengo » The Relevance of Keynes’s General Theory after 80 years - Review of Keynesian Economics 2016
Thomas Palley, Louis-Philippe Rochon and Matías Vernengo -- The Relevance of Keynes’s General Theory after 80 years -- This year marks two important anniversaries in macroeconomics: the 80th anniversary of the publication of Keynes’s The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, and the 70th anniversary of Keynes’s premature death, at the age of 63. To mark these anniversaries, the first issue of the fourth year of the Review of Keynesian Economics is dedicated to Keynes -' downloaded pdf to Note
article  economic_theory  intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  Keynesianism  Keynes  downloaded 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Weibel P, Sloterdijk P, Finkielkraut A, Houellebecq M - La nouvelle conception de l'homme. La construction de l'être humain (2004) - Cairn.info
Weibel Peter, Sloterdijk Peter, Finkielkraut Alain, Houellebecq Michel, « La nouvelle conception de l'homme. La construction de l'être humain. », Le Philosophoire 2/2004 (n° 23) , p. 32-55
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2004-2-page-32.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.023.0032.
Transcript from 2001 conference
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
21stC  evolution-social  biocultural_evolution  Modernism  humanism  downloaded  posthumanism  human_nature  change-social  conference  genetics  anti-humanism  neuroscience  social_theory  postmodern 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Vincent Citot, review - S. Chaumier, L'inculture pour tous - les effets pervers du démocratisme culturel (2011) - Cairn.info
Premier effet pervers du démocratisme culturel : le maintien dans un état d’inculture (non pas au sens anthropologique, on l’aura compris) de ceux qui n’étaient pas les « héritiers » d’un « capital culturel » familial – pour parler la langue de Bourdieu. Second effet pervers, très bien analysé par Serge Chaumier : la confusion de la culture et des loisirs fait le jeu du consumérisme. Les démocrates voulaient favoriser une contre-culture (celle de la rue, des banlieues, des cités, etc.), mais ils n’ont fait que faciliter la marchandisation de la culture
taste  working_class  France  Boudrieu  popular_culture  Malraux  cultural_history  hierarchy  21stC  egalitarian  national_ID  multiculturalism  postmodern  books  status  judgment-aesthetics  reviews  democratization  elite_culture  republicanism  culture_industries  French_intellectuals  education-civic  20thC  political_history  social_capital 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Martin Jay, review essay - PHILOSOPHY AS PERPETUAL MOTION: PRAGMATISM MOVES ON | JSTOR - History and Theory ( Oct 2011)
Reviewed Works: The Pragmatic Turn by Richard J. Bernstein; Pragmatism as Transition: Historicity and Hope in James, Dewey, and Rorty by Colin Koopman -- History and Theory, Vol. 50, No. 3 (October 2011), pp. 425-432 -- respectively a summing up of the past half-century of the tradition's history and a possible program for its future development. Bernstein ecumenically considers the achievements of a wide range of thinkers from Peirce, Dewey, and James to Brandom, Putnam, and Rorty, drawing valuable lessons from each, while not sparing criticism of their flaws. Koopman also tries to bridge the gap between what he calls "classicopragmatism" and "neopragmatism," although he finds more to admire in Rorty than in his predecessors. Whereas Bernstein attempts to supplement the pragmatist tradition by turning to Habermas, Koopman finds his inspiration in Foucault. Both authors emphasize the historicist, evolutionary, and transitionalist implications of pragmatism, paying as a result insufficient attention to the historical possibilities of repetition, rupture, discontinuity, and the unexpected event. In terms of the political implications they draw, Koopman advocates a meliorist incrementalism that lacks any real bite, while Bernstein expresses dissatisfaction with the democratic pieties of Rorty's final work, but doesn't really provide a sustained alternative. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  bookshelf  reviews  jstor  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  21stC  pragmatism  pragmatism-analytic  postmodern  critical_theory  political_philosophy  Peirce  James_William  Dewey  Rorty  Putnam  Quine  Habermas  Foucault  Brandom  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Twitter
What a great place William Reed weaving is! 128 looms.
21stC  UKmfg  from twitter_favs
january 2016 by freerange_inc
Céline Spector - Charles Taylor, philosophe de la culture (career review) - La Vie des idées - 8 avril 2014
Charles Taylor n’a cessé de critiquer l’individualisme des sociétés modernes. La politique de la reconnaissance qu’il prône entend respecter la singularité de chacun et son inscription dans une communauté morale ou politique – quitte à accorder une importance excessive aux convictions religieuses. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  Taylor_Charles  individualism  modernity  secularism  religious_belief  religious_culture  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Arnaud Esquerre, review - Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison, Objectivité (Fr trans 2012) - La Vie des idées
Recensé : Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison, Objectivité. Préface de Bruno Latour, traduction de Sophie Renaut et Hélène Quiniou. Paris, Les Presses du Réel, 2012, 582 p., 28 €. -- La manière dont nous concevons ce qui est ou non objectif a plusieurs fois changé depuis le XVIIe siècle. Pour explorer ces variations, Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison étudient les « atlas » que formeraient les usages scientifiques de l’image. Ces illustrations de plantes, de planètes, de méduses ou de flocons de neige en disent long, en effet, sur les régimes de l’objectivité – avec à l’horizon du XXIe siècle, la possible disparition des représentations dans les pratiques scientifiques. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  bookshelf  intellectual_history  history_of_science  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  objectivity  representation-epistemology  scientific_method  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  instruments  images  images-scientific  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Étienne Bimbenet, review - Claude Romano, Au cœur de la raison, la phénoménologie - La Vie des idées - 17 décembre 2010
Recensé : Claude Romano, Au cœur de la raison, la phénoménologie. Gallimard (Folio Essais), 2010 ; 1141 p., 13, 50 €. -- Repenser la phénoménologie dans ses présupposés les plus forts, et la transformer de l’intérieur : tel est le geste théorique de Claude Romano qui, à partir des objections formulées par la philosophie analytique et l’empirisme logique, défend une phénoménologie redonnant toute sa place à la sensibilité dans l’analyse de l’expérience et la saisie des essences. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  21stC  continental_philosophy  phenomenology  Heidegger  Merleau-Ponty  Levinas  analytical_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  empiricism  metaphysics  experience  sensation  reason  rationality  epistemology  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader

« earlier    

related tags

-priorities  1-percent  15thc  1680s  1690s  16thc  1700s  1707_union  17thc  18thc  1995  19thc  2010s  2016  20thc  absolutism  academia-governance  academia  access_to_finance  accountability  accounting  agency-structure  agency  agriculture-markets  agriculture  ai  american_colonies  american_exceptionalism  american_revolution  analytical_philosophy  ancien_régime  ancient_constitution  ancient_history  anti-foundationalism  anti-humanism  aporia  apriori  architecture  arms-length_transactions  article  arts-promotion  asian_philosophy  asset  asset_prices  audience  augustine  austerity  australia  austrian_economics  authority  bad_economics  bad_history  balance_of_payments  bank_runs  banking-universal  banking  bankruptcy  bentham  beps  biblical_exegesis  bibliography  bill_of_rights  bills_of_attainder  biocultural_evolution  blackstone  blair_tony  bolingbroke  bond_market_vigilantes  books  bookshelf  boudrieu  bourdieu  brandom  brexit  britain  british_empire-constitutional_structure  british_empire  british_foreign_policy  british_history  british_politics  bubbles  buddhism  budget_deficit  bureaucracy  bush_administration  business-and-politics  business-norms  business_cycles  business_history  business_influence  business_practices  cameralism  canada  capital  capital_as_power  capital_flows  capital_markets  capitalism-systemic_crisis  capitalism-varieties  capitalism  cartesian  catholic_emancipation  catholics-and-politics  catholics-england  catholics-ireland  catholics  causation-social  central_banks  change-economic  change-social  charles_i-personal_rule  charles_i  charles_ii  charts  checks-and-balances  chicago_school  china-economy  china-governance  china  chinese_history  chinese_politics  christendom  christianity  church_history  church_of_england  circulation-ideas  cities-governance  civil_liberties  civil_society  classical_music  climate  coercion  cogito  cognition  cold_war  colonial_era  commercialization  common_good  common_law  community  community_banks  comparative_history  competition-interstate  competition  comple  composite_monarchies  conference  confucianism  congress  conservation  constituencies  constitutional_law  constitutional_regime  constitutions  constructivism  consumer_demand  consumer_protection  consumerism  contextualism  continental_philosophy  corporate_citizenship  corporate_finance  corporate_governance  corporate_law  corporate_tax  corruption  cosmology  cosmopolitanism  counter-enlightenment  counter-reformation  court_culture  courtiers  creation  creation_ex_nilho  credit  credit_ratings  crime  criminal_justice  crisis  critical_theory  cultural_authority  cultural_change  cultural_critique  cultural_exchange  cultural_history  cultural_influence  cultural_transmission  culture-american  culture_industries  culture_wars  curiosity  daoism  darwin  death  debt-overhang  debt-restructuring  debt  debtors  declinism  democracy  democracy_deficit  democratic_theory  democratization  demography  deregulation  derivatives  derrida  descartes  despotism  development-impact  development  dewey  diaspora  digital_economy  dignity  disciplines  discrimination  disintermediation  dissenters  distribution-income  distribution-wealth  dividends  division_of_labor  dollar  downloaded  dualism  durkheim  dutch  early_christian  ebooks  ecclesiology  economic  economic_culture  economic_growth  economic_history  economic_models  economic_policy  economic_sociology  economic_theory  economics-and-morality  economy  education-civic  education-finance  education-higher  education  ef-add  egalitarian  elections-disputed  elections  elite_culture  elites  elizabeth  emerging_markets  empire-and_business  empires  empiricism  emtrepreneurs  english_civil_war  english_constitution  enlightenment  enlightenment_project  enthusiasm  entrepreneurs  environment  epistemology-moral  epistemology-naturalism  epistemology-social  epistemology  equality  esotericism  essence  eu  eu_governance  europe-19thc  europe-early_modern  europe-exceptionalism  europe  eurozone  evernote  evolution-social  exec_branch  executive_compensation  experience  expertise  extremism  fairness  faith  family  fed  feminism  finance_capital  financial  financial_access  financial_crisis  financial_economics  financial_innovation  financial_regulation  financial_stability  financial_system-government_back-stop  financial_system  financialization  firms-organization  firms-structure  fiscal  fiscal_policy  foucault  foundationalism  founders  france  franchise  fraud  free_speech  free_trade  freedom  french_intellectuals  french_language  french_politics  french_revolution  freshwater_economics  fundamentalism  fx-misalignment  fx-rate_management  fx  g20  gender  gender_gap  genetics  geography  geopolitics  german_theologians  germany-eurozone  germany  gilded_age  glass-steagal  global_governance  global_imbalance  global_system  globalization  glorious_revolution-scotland  glorious_revolution  gnp  good  gop  governance  governing_class  government-forms  government-roles  government  government_finance  government_officials  grand_narrative  great_depression  great_recession  growth  gses  gwot  habermas  hamilton  hayek  hegemony  heidegger  hermeticism  heroes  hierarchy  historiography  history  history_of_science  hobbes  homosexuality  house_of_commons  house_of_lords  house_of_representatives  house_prices  housing  human_capital  human_nature  human_rights  humanism  humanities-finance  humanities  hume  ideology  ifis  images-scientific  images  imago_dei  imf  imigration  impeachment  imperial-soft  imperialism  improvement  incentives-distortions  incentives  increasing_returns  india  indigenous_peoples  individualism-methodology  individualism  indonesia  industrial_policy  industrial_revolution  industrialization  inequality-opportunity  inequality-wealth  inequality  inflation-expectations  infrastructure  inheritance  innovation-government_policy  innovation  instapaper  institutional_capacity  institutional_change  institutional_economics  institutional_investors  institutions  instrumentalist  instruments  intellectual_history-distorted  intellectual_history  intelligentsia  interest_rates  intermediation  international_finance  international_law  international_political_economy  interstate_banking  investment  investors  ip  ir-domestic_politics  ir  ir_theory  iraq  ireland-english_exploitation  ireland  irish_parliament  is-ought  islam  islamic_civilization  islamic_law  islamist_fundamentalists  italy  james_i  james_ii  james_william  japan  jefferson  jesuits  john_gray  journalism  journalists  jstor  judgment-aesthetics  judicial_review  judiciary  jurisprudence  justice  justification  kant-ethics  kant  keynes  keynesian  keynesianism  kindle-available  knowledge  knowledge_economy  knowledge_workers  krugman  labor-service_sector  labor  labor_history  labor_law  labor_markets  labor_share  labor_theory_of_value  labour  laisser-faire  language-national  latin_america  law_enforcement  lawmaker  lawyers  ldcs  lecture  left-wing  legal_culture  legal_history  legal_reform  legal_system  legal_theory  legislation  legislature-committees  legislature-process  legislature  legitimacy  lender-of-last-resort  leverage  levinas  liberal_democracy  liberalism-19thc  liberalism-public_reason  liberalism  libertarianism  liberty-negative  liberty-positive  liberty  limited_monarchy  links  liquidity  literary_theory  local_government  local_politics  logic  logical_positivism  london  lucas_critique  macintyre  macroeconomics  madison  majoritarian  malraux  managerialism  managrrialism  manifest_destiny  maps  marginalists  market-size_of  market_fundamentalism  market_manipulation  markets-dependence_on_government  markets-failure  markets-structure  markets  markets_in_everything  marx  marxism  mass_culture  maturity_transformation  media  medieval  medieval_history  medieval_philosophy  mediterranean  memory  mena  mercantilism  merleau-ponty  metaethics  metaphysics  methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  middle_class  migration  miitary-industrial  military  mill  mind-body  mind  minorities  minsky  mioitary-industrial_complex  mitterand  mncs  mobility  modernism  modernity  modernization_theory  monarchical_republic  monarchy-proprietary  monarchy  monetarism  monetary_policy-effectiveness  monetary_policy  monetary_theory  money  monopolies  moral_philosophy  morality-conventional  morality-divine_command  morality-objective  morality  mortgages  mps  multiculturalism  multilateralism  music  music_history  narrative-contested  narrative  nation-state  national_id  national_interest  nationalism  natural_law  natural_philosophy  natural_religion  natural_rights  natural_theology  naturalism  nature-mastery  nature  nazis  nbfi  neoclassical_economics  neoconservatism  neoliberalism  networks-information  networks  neuroscience  new_age  new_testament  nietzsche  norms  north_africa  north_america  obama_administration  objectivity  obligation  occasional_conformity  oecd  oecd_economies  old_testament  opposition  orientalism  papacy  paper  parlement  parliament  parliamentary_supremacy  parties  partisanship  pcf  peirce  pettit  phenomenology  philosophes  philosophy  philosophy_of_law  philosophy_of_religion  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  pluralism  plutocracy  pocket  poland  police  policy  policymaking  political-theology  political  political_change  political_culture  political_discourse  political_economy  political_history  political_order  political_participation  political_philosophy  political_press  politics-and-history  politics-and-religion  pollution  popper  popular_culture  populism  positive_law  positivism-legal  positivism  post-cold_war  post-colonial  post-wwii  posthumanism  postmodern  poverty  power-asymnetric  practical_reason  pragmatism-analytic  pragmatism  prerogative  prices  prime_ministers  prisons  privatization  productivity-labor_share  productivity  profit  profits  progressive_era  propaganda  property_rights  protestants-ireland  psychology  public-private_partnerships  public_enterprise  public_finance  public_goods  public_opinion  public_policy  public_sphere  publishing  punishment  puritans  putnam  queen_anne  queen_mary  quine  r&d  racism  radicals  rating_agencies  rational_expectations  rationality  rawls  rbc  reader_response  readership  real_economy  real_estate  reason  reductionism  reform-economic  reform-finance  reform-legal  reform-political  reformation  regional_blocs  regulation-enforcement  regulation-harmonization  regulation  regulatory_capture  relativism  religion-established  religious_belief  religious_culture  religious_experience  religious_history  religious_lit  rent-seeking  rents  report  representation-epistemology  representative_institutions  reproductive_rights  republic_of_letters  republicanism  research-funding  research  restoration  revelation  reviews  revolutions  rhetoric-political  right-wing  rights-legal  risk-systemic  risk  risk_capital  risk_management  rivers  robotics  romer  rorty  rousseau  rule_of_law  russia  russian_foreign_policy  satire  savings  scepticism-academic  scepticism  schleiermacher  science-and-politics  science-and-religion  science-public  scientific_culture  scientific_method  scientific_revolution  scientism  scientistism  scotland  scottish_enlightenment  scottish_parliament  scotus  scribd  secular  secularism  secularization  securitization  self-interest-cultural_basis  self-interest  sensation  separation-of-powers  shadow_banking  shareholder_value  shareholders  slavery  smes  smith  smoth  social_capital  social_contract  social_darwinism  social_democracy  social_epistemology  social_gospel  social_history  social_hisyory  social_movements  social_order  social_problem  social_sciences-finance  social_sciences-post-wwii  social_sciences  social_theory  social_thought  socialism  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_religion  sociology_of_science_&_technology  soteriology  sovereign_debt  sovereignty  spain  spanish_empire  specialization  speculative_finance  spirituality  ssrn  stagnation  state-and-science  state-building  state_government  statistics  stats  status  stratification  structuralist  study_and_uses  subsidiarity  substance  supply-side  surnames  taste  tax_collection  tax_havens  tax_policy  tax_reform  taxes  taylor_charles  technocracy  technology-history  technology  technology_transfer  terrorism  theism  theocracy  theology  thinking_matter  thomism-21stc  three_kingdoms  tibet  tocqueville  tories  totalitarian  trade-agreements  trade-policy  trade-policy_enforcement  trade-theory  trade  trade_deficits  trans-pacific-partnership  transaction_costs  transfer_pricing  translation  transnational_elites  transport-overland  transport  treaties  trickle-down  trust  truth  uk_economy  uk_evonomy  uk_government  uk_politics  ukmfg  unemployment  unions  universal_language-english  universal_language-latin  university-contemporary  university  urban_development  urban_politics  urbanization  us  us_constitution  us_economy  us_foreign_policy  us_government  us_history  us_legal_system  us_politics  us_society  values  vatican_ii  virtue  virtue_epistemology  volker  wages-minimum  wages  walpole  water  wealth  weber  website  welfare_state  whig_junto  whig_schism  whigs-oligarchy  whigs-opposition  whigs-radicals  whigs  william_iii  wittgenstein  women-rights  worker_co-ops  working_class  wto  wwii  yield 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: