1973   293

« earlier    

The ‘Chicago Boys’ in Chile: Economic Freedom’s Awful Toll | The Nation
"Repression for the majorities and “economic freedom” for small privileged groups are two sides of the same coin."

"A Rationale for Power

The economic policies of the Chilean junta and its re­sults have to be placed in the context of a wide counter­revolutionary process that aims to restore to a small minority the economic, social and political control it gradually lost over the last thirty years, and particularly in the years of the Popular Unity Government.

Until September 11, 1973, the date of the coup, Chilean society had been characterized by the increasing participation of the working class and its political parties in economic and social decision making. Since about 1900, employing the mechanisms of representative democ­racy, workers had steadily gained new economic, social and political power. The election of Salvador Allende as President of Chile was the culmination of this process. For the first time in history a society attempted to build socialism by peaceful means. During Allende’s time in office, there was a marked improvement in the conditions of employment, health, housing, land tenure and education of the masses. And as this occurred, the privileged do­mestic groups and the dominant foreign interests perceived themselves to be seriously threatened.

Despite strong financial and political pressure from abroad and efforts to manipulate the attitudes of the middle class by propaganda, popular support for the Allende government increased significantly between 1970 and 1973. In March 1973, only five months before the military coup, there were Congressional elections in Chile. The political parties of the Popular Unity increased their share of the votes by more than 7 percentage points over their totals in the Presidential election of 1970. This was the first time in Chilean history that the political parties supporting the administration in power gained votes dur­ing a midterm election. The trend convinced the national bourgeoisie and its foreign supporters that they would be unable to recoup their privileges through the democratic process. That is why they resolved to destroy the demo­cratic system and the institutions of the state, and, through an alliance with the military; to seize power by force.

In such a context, concentration of wealth is no acci­dent, but a rule; it is not the marginal outcome of a difficult situation—as they would like the world to believe—but the base for a social project; it is not an economic liability but a temporary political success. Their real failure is not their apparent inability to redistribute wealth or to generate a more even path of development (these are not their priorities) but their inability to convince the majority of Chileans that their policies are reasonable and necessary. In short, they have failed to destroy the consciousness of the Chilean people. The economic plan has had to be enforced, and in the Chilean context that could be done only by the killing of thousands, the estab­lishment of concentration camps all over the country, the jailing of more than 100,000 persons in three years, the closing of trade unions and neighborhood organizations, and the prohibition of all political activities and all forms of free expression.

While the “Chicago boys” have provided an appearance of technical respectability to the laissez-faire dreams and political greed of the old landowning oligarchy and upper bourgeoisie of monopolists and financial speculators, the military has applied the brutal force required to achieve those goals. Repression for the majorities and “economic freedom” for small privileged groups are in Chile two sides of the same coin.

There is, therefore, an inner harmony between the two central priorities announced by the junta after the coup in 1973: the “destruction of the Marxist cancer” (which has come to mean not only the repression of the political parties of the Left but also the destruction of all labor organizations democratically elected and all opposition, including Christian-Democrats and church organizations), the establishment of a free “private economy” and the control of inflation à la Friedman.

It is nonsensical, consequently, that those who inspire, support or finance that economic policy should try to present their advocacy as restricted to “technical consid­erations,” while pretending to reject the system of terror it requires to succeed.

* * *

This note on “Allende’s Economic Record” was published next to the piece.

There is a widespread notion—reported by the Amer­ican press, often without substantiation—that the Allende government made a “shambles” of the Chilean economy. It is hardly acceptable to judge an ongoing sociopolitical process only by traditional economic indi­cators which describe aggregate economic features and not the general condition of society. However, when those indicators are applied to Chile, the Popular Unity Government fares very well.

In 1971, the first year of the Allende government, the GNP increased 8.9 percent; industrial production rose by 11 percent; agricultural output went up by 6 percent; unemployment, which at the end of the Frei government was above 8 percent, fell to 3.8 percent. Inflation, which in the previous year had been nearly 35 percent, was reduced to an annual rate of 22.1 percent.

During 1972 the external pressures applied on the government and the backlash of the domestic opposition began to be felt. On the one hand, lines of credit and financing coming from multinational lending institutions and from the private banks and the government of the United States were severed (the exception being aid to the military). On the other hand, the Chilean Congress, controlled by the opposi­tion, approved measures which escalated government expenditure without producing the necessary revenues (through an increase of taxes); this added momentum to the inflationary process. At the same time, factions of the traditional right wing began to foment violence aimed at overthrowing the government. Despite all this and the fact that the price of copper, which represented almost 80 percent of Chile’s export earnings, fell to its lowest level in thirty years, the Chilean economy continued to improve throughout 1972.

By the end of that year, the growing participation of the workers and peasants in the decision-making process, which accompanied the economic progress of the preceding two years, began to threaten seriously the privileges of traditional ruling groups and pro­voked in them more violent resistance. By 1973, Chile was experiencing the full effects of the most destructive and sophisticated conspiracy in Latin American history. Reactionary forces, supported feverishly by their friends abroad, developed a broad and systematic campaign of sabotage and terror, which was intensified when the government gained in the March Congressional elections. This included the illegal hoarding of goods by the rich; creation of a vast black market; blowing up industrial plants, electrical installations and pipe lines; paralysis of the transportation system and, in general, attempts to disrupt the entire economy in such a way as to create the conditions needed to justify the military coup. It was this deliberate disruption, and not the Popular Unity, which created any chaos during the final days of the Allende government.

Between 1970 and 1973, the working classes had access to food and clothing, to health care, housing and education to an extent unknown before. These achievements were never threatened or diminished, even during the most difficult and dramatic moments of the government’s last year in power. The priorities which the Popular Unity had established in its program of social transformations were largely reached."
orlandoletelier  2016  chicagoboys  chile  history  economics  policy  politics  freedom  capitalism  miltonfriedman  socialism  1973  pinochet  salvadorallende  class  work  labor  solidarity  democracy  coup  marxism  neoiliberalism 
8 weeks ago by robertogreco
Wikipedia - Nadia's Theme
"De Vorzon and Botkin Jr. composed this piece of music, originally titled "Cotton's Dream", as incidental music for the 1971 theatrical film Bless the Beasts and Children."
NadiaComăneci  1976  summer  Olympics  TheYoungandtheRestless  soapopera  TV  music  BarryDeVorzon  PerryBotkin  Jr.  1971  1973  Wikipedia  gymnastics 
december 2018 by cosmic

« earlier    

related tags

1853  1940  1945  1960  1960s  1963  1964  1965  1967  1968  1969  1970's  1970  1970s  1971  1972  1974  1975  1976  1979  1980  1980s  1982  1983  1986  1987  1988  1989  1990s  1992  1994  1995  1997  1999  2000  2001  2004  2005  2008  2010  2010s  2011  2013  2014  2015  2016  2017  2883  995  aaron  abortion  abstract  action  activism  actormodel  adventureplayground  afghanistan  aforcemorepowerful.org  ajayappaden  akhilamar  album  albums  all_the_girls_love_alice  allmusic  ambient  america  amnesia  analysis  andreaconstand  angelaleslie  animals  animation  anime  annareser  anthonyantonellis  application  architecture  archive  arizona  arpanet  arsenal  arson  art  artists  askingquestions  aspekte  astrology  at  atlantic  attention  auction  audio  audiovisual  audrelorde  augusto_pinochet  australia  authoritarianism  azcentral  baileys  ballroom_blitz  barbarabowman  barrydevorzon  barrygoldwater  bayarea  bbc  bear  bear_story  becominganimal  behavior  belladonnaofsadness  ben  bermudatriangle  bethferrier  beverlyjohnson  billcosby  birding  birds  birdwatching  birth  blackmirror  bluejays  bob_marley  bobbland  bobbywilson  bodies  body  book  books  booze  boredom  brazil  briankalt  broadway  brown  buddhism  bultaco  bultaco_alpina  caine  calculator  california  caliressler  camera  can_t_you_see  canneryrow  canon  capitalism  care  caretakers  caring  carlaferrigno  carmenperez  catholicism  cca  cd  chapelofthechimes  chelan  chicagoboys  children  childrenofmen  chile  chios  chloegoins  chocolate  choctawcountyweekly  chrismarker  cia  cindraladd  circus  citizens  cityofquartz  civilrights  class  classideas  clintonvjones  clothing  cocktails  coercion  collaboration  collection  color  column  comfort  comics  commentary  communication  communications  complexity  computer  computers  computerscience  concert  congress  connectivity  conservatives  consumerism  consumption  control  conversation  conviviality  cooperunion  copenhagen  corruption  corvids  coup  cream  creativity  crime  criticaltheory  crowdcontrol  crows  csicop  ct  culture  cup  curriculum  curtis_boyd  cycles  cyclicality  danielhernandez  david_grimes  david_purley  davidabram  davidcarradine  dcist  death  deeplisening  deeplistening  degree  deleuze  democracy  democrats  demographics  denmark  design  development  digitalpainting  discogs.com  dissent  diversity  dobie_gray  doctor  documentary  doj  donaldjudd  donaldtrump  donnamotsinger  douglas_laube  drift_away  drinks  drugged  duncanhunter  dylanmatthews  early-work  early  ecology  economics  economists  economy  edgar_winter_group  education  efficiency  effort  efschumacher  eleanorcoppola  elitism  elizabethwarren  elton_john  email  emilycrockett  emilynussbaum  epic  equipment  ericchaplin  español  essays  evanpuschak  events  everyday  everyframeapainting  example  excerpt  exchange  expenses  experimental  explainers  eyeo2017  facebook  facup  facupfinal  fakes  fear  feminism  fforfake  film  final  finance  fire  fireproof  fiverr  flags  florida  flute  fomo  footage  football  form  fortlauderdale  francoberardi  frankenstein  fraud  fredpeterson  free  freedom  freeuniversityinternational  funeral_for_a_friend  funk  future  gabbygiffords  gabriel_osorio_vargas  gabriellemoss  gender  gene_sharp  georgepacker  georgesperec  georgewbush  gerrymandering  gillesdeleuze  glas  golden_earring  goodbye_yellow_brick_road  gordonhempton  government  gracecathedral  gratefuldead  greatrecession  greece  greenland  greggrandin  growth  guerrilla  guide  guncontrol  guns  gymnastics  gyneology  hachimitsupai  hakushu  hampden  hansrichter  haroldcohen  hawaii  hbo  he  health  heatsheets  heinrichboll  helenhayes  helenmolesworth  herons  hew  hewitt  highered  highereducation  hillaryclinton  history  homosexuality  honolulu  hope  hospital  housingbubble  howweread  hubbletelescope  hughscott  hugo-ok  human-animalelationships  human-animalrelations  human-animalrelationships  humanism  humanity  ibeam  identity  ideology  idleness  image  imagination  immigration  impeachment  inauguration  independence  independent_lens  industrial  inequality  information  innovation  intelligence  interior  internet  internetarchive  interpretation  interview  intuition  investment  irvine  israel/palestine  italy  jack  jackkinzler  jackkirby  jackson  jamesbridle  jamesmccormick  jamesrandi  jamesturrell  janicedickinson  japan  jazz  jenat  jennyodell  jerrybrown  jerryross  jessejarnow  jewelallison  joantarshis  jodythompson  joeferguson  johncage  johncleese  johnhedjuk  johnlennon  johnmuir  johnnevilmaskelyne  johnnycarson  johnrhodes  johnsteinbeck  johnstormer  johnwhite  jordan  josealvarez  josephbeuys  josephkerwin  joyceemmons  jr.  jref  judychicago  judyhuth  judywilson  juliamorgan  junior  junta  katherinemckee  kimstanleyrobinson  kirby  kitchens  knowledge  koji_wakamatsu  konzert  kraftwerk  kristinaruehli  kungfu  labor  labyrinths  lachelecovington  lampedusa  landmark  landscape  language  languageinstruction  lavonnewilson  law  lawsuit  learning  led_zeppelin  leedsunited  legal  leisure  leopoldkohr  lesbos  letters  letterwriting  liberalism  life  lighting  lincolnmemorial  lindakirkpatrick  lindasarsour  lisajones  list  listening  lists  literacy  live  logic  los_angeles  losangeles  lotus30  louisamoritz  lynnneal  machine_head  madrigal_v_quilligan  magic  maintenance  mapping  maps  march  market  markmaking  marshall_tucker_band  martharosler  martingardner  marxism  marykelly  massculture  material  math  mclaren  meadow  media  medicine  mediterranean  medium  mentor_williams  mervgriffin  method  michael  micheldemontaigne  michellehurd  michigan  michiganstate  mierleladermanukeles  migration  mikedavis  mikelitterst  mikerugnetta  miltonfriedman  miltonkeynes  mit  modernist  modernity  momsdemandaction  monoha  montaigne  mossad  motor_racing  motorcycle  mps  multiliteracies  multispecies  murder  murielcooper  music  mylife  nadiacomăneci  nancypelosi  nasa  natgeo  nationalgeographic  nationalmetallizing  nationalparkservice  nature  negotiation  neoiliberalism  neoliberalism  nerdwriter  newjersey  newspaper  newtgingrich  newyork  nfl  ninaserrano  nomo  nonindustrial  nonviolence  nonviolent  norrebro  northcarolina  nosmo  nostalgia  nothing  noticing  nyc  nymag  nytimes  oahu  oakland  object  observation  olc  olympics  on_the_run  online  openness  oppression  order  ordinary  oregon  organizing  orlandoletelier  ors  orsonwelles  oscars  ownership  pain  pakistan  pantsuitnation  paradox  parispeaceaccord  paulineoliveros  paulkurtz  pbs.org  peace  perception  performance  perrybotkin  persuasion  petercooper  pets  phenomenon  philadelphia  photography  photos  photoshop  phyllisschlafly  pink_floyd  pinochet  pjmasten  playground  playscape  police  policy  politics  pop  popos  population  postwar  poverty  power  precarity  preervation  pregnancy  presence  president  print  printing  privacy  privacyact  productivity  profit  programming  progressivism  proposition13  protest  pseudoscience  psychics  public  publication  publicschools  publicspace  punk  punkrobot  puppet  questionasking  questioning  race  racism  radar_love  rand  randalljameszwinge  randallzwinge  rape  ravens  rayhyman  raúlruiz  reading  realestate  rebeccasolnit  recology  records  reference  refugees  remaster  remembered  removal  renitahill  representation  reproduction  republicans  research  resistance  resource  resources  results  reunification  revolution  ricardoscofidio  richardnixon  richardprince  richardserr  richardwalker  rick_derringer  rickperlstein  ringwoodmanor  robertmueller  robertscull  robinvos  rock  roe_vs_wade  ronaldreagan  ronnie_montrose  roots  rowe  roxy_music  rubenpeter  ruth  ruthbrown  ruthschartzcowan  ruthschwartzcowan  sadja_greenwood  salvadorallende  samuelgompers  sand  sanfrancisco  sanssoleil  sarahholding  saullandau  saxophone  schools  science  scottish  scottpolach  scottwalker  seanilling  seiichi_hayashi  semiotics  senses  sensitivity  sexualassault  shaolin  shawnbrown  shooting  short_film  sidneyblumenthal  sign  silence  siliconvalley  simplicity  singing  single  skeptic  skeptics  skylab  skylab2  slow  small  smallisbeautiful  smoke_on_the_water  soapopera  socialism  socialmedia  socialplastic  socialsculpture  society  sociology  software  solidarity  song  sotheby  soundtrack  sourcecode  space  spaceblankets  spanish  specimens  speech  sport  sri  sterilization  stir_it_up  stories  story  streaming  structure  sugakishio  summer  sumé  sunderland  supremecourt  sutrotower  suzanne_poppema  sweet  symbol  synthesizer  synthi  table  tamaragreen  tamikamallory  tampa_florida  tanzmusik  taxes  taxi  teaparty  technology  technosolutionism  techology  telenovelas  television  tennis  termlimits  terror  tetsu_kashiwa  the_ballroom_blitz  the_sweet  theamazingmeeting  theatlantic  thereseserignese  theyoungandtherestless  things  thinking  time  timeline  tonyzhou  toronto  towatch  trauma  trial  turingtest  tv  ucsd  umbertoeco  unitedstates  universalcitywalk  urbanplanning  urigeller  us-pres  us  usa  utopia  values-in-design  venezuela  victoriavalentino  video  videoessays  vietnam  vietnamwar  violence  visible  vk.com  vox  waikiki  war  ware  warren_hern  was  washington-dc  washpost  watergate  web  well-being  wendy_chavkin  western  when  whiskey  whisky  wikipedia  williamfbuckley  wisconsin  women  work  wpa  writing  xojane  yale  yoru_ni_hohoyose  youtube  zarabanda  かしわ哲  はちみつぱい  夜にほほよせ  林静一  若松孝二 

Copy this bookmark: