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Om onze geschiedenis goed te begrijpen, moeten we terug gaan in de tijd, naar de oorsprong van ons huidig pensioensysteem...
Tot begin jaren “50 waren de Belgische pensioenen gebaseerd op een systeem van kapitalisatie. De werknemers legden individueel een kapitaal aan, meestal bij de Algemene Spaar- en Lijfrentekas (ASLK), met het oog op een toekomstig pensioen.
Vanaf 1954 werd dit nancieringssysteem geleidelijk
aan vervangen door een systeem
van repartitie en solidariteit. Voortaan betaalt de actieve bevolking rechtstreeks een bijdrage ten gunste van de gepensioneerden. Dit noemen we intergenerationele solidariteit. De ASLK werd verantwoordelijk
voor het beheer van de individuele rekening van de werknemers
in de privésector waarop alle
loon- en arbeidstijdgegevens
worden bijgehouden. Doel van
deze individuele rekening? De pensioenrechten van werknemers uit de privésector bepalen en vooral ook een gecentraliseerde archivering ervan op lange termijn verzekeren.
In 1993 werd de ASLK geprivatiseerd. FB Verzekeringen (Fortis Groep)
nam alle activiteiten over, zo ook het bijhouden van de individuele rekening. Deze overheidsopdracht bevindt zich vanaf dat ogenblik paradoxaal genoeg, bij een onderneming in de privésector. Om ervoor te zorgen dat het beheer van de individuele rekeningen terug in handen van de publieke sector kwam, richtten in 2001 de Rijksdienst voor Pensioenen (RVP), de Pensioendienst voor de Overheidssector (PDOS), de RSZ, de KSZ en FB Verzekeringen
de gemengd privaat-publieke vzw CIMIRe op. Deze overgangsstructuur had als doel de continuïteit van de activiteiten te verzekeren, totdat deze taken toevertrouwd konden worden aan instellingen van de sociale zekerheid zelf.
Bij de oprichting van Sigedis in 2006 was onze eerste opdracht de
vervanging van de informaticatool, destijds door de ASLK ontworpen, voor het beheer van de individuele rekening. De opdrachten van CIMIRe worden bij de ingebruikname van deze databank stopgezet. Op 1
januari 2010, bij het stopzetten van
de activiteiten, wordt het werk voor een deel door de Rijksdienst voor Pensioenen overgenomen en voor een ander deel door Sigedis verdergezet.

Met Sigedis zijn we echt de moderne tijd binnengetreden. Toen we startten, waren alle gegevens gearchiveerd in de kelders van Fortis. Er waren 7km archieven, oftewel 22.000 dossierkisten... Vandaag de dag is alles geautomatiseerd. De afgelopen 10 jaar werden de tools gemoderniseerd, maar ook het personeel en de mentaliteit zijn geëvolueerd.
belgium  pension  taxes  history  1954  1993  2001  2006  2007  2008  2009  2010  2011  2012  2013  2014  2015  2016  government  government2.0 
october 2017 by WimLeers
Don't Touch the Computer - Behavioral Scientist
Back in 1954, the experimental psychologist Paul Meehl published his “disturbing little book” Clinical versus Statistical Prediction. In one chapter, Meehl catalogued twenty empirical competitions between statistical methods and clinical judgement, involving predictions such as academic results, psychiatric prognosis after electroshock therapy, and parole violation. The results were consistently victory for the statistical algorithm or a tie with the clinical decision maker. In only one study could Meehl generously give a point to the humans. (I’ll leave aside for today the point that we have known these facts for over 60 years, yet still heavily rely on expert judgment in domains where we could otherwise replace it.)
ai  artificial-intelligence  medicine  1954 
july 2017 by whimsley
I’m Still Here: A Conversation with Agnès Varda - From the Current - The Criterion Collection
"At eighty-eight years old, Agnès Varda is still blossoming as an artist. Long known primarily as a filmmaker, a vocation she took up more than half a century ago, the French iconoclast is now in what she gleefully describes as her “third life,” a period in which her photography, video installation, and sculpture have finally gained international recognition. Last month, Varda visited New York for a revelatory new show at Blum & Poe gallery that spans over sixty years of her creative expression. The works on view highlight both her aesthetic versatility and her affinity for excavating the past to breathe new life into the present.

While in town for the opening of the exhibition, Varda visited us at Criterion for lunch and chatted about how her gallery art exists in the context of her career.

Q: Featured in the exhibition is a series of photographs that you first displayed in your courtyard over fifty years ago. What was your original experience of showing them like?

A: I made these photographs in 1953 and 1954 and printed them myself in my lab. At that time, I had done fifty, seventy—I don’t remember how many images—and I glued them to a woodlike material. I presented them in my courtyard, hanging them on the walls and the shutters. I was impressed to see them on a clean wall in a beautiful gallery in New York, when originally they were outside for two weeks, whatever the weather. Back then, I didn’t know anybody, and I didn’t ask any papers or journalists to come. I put up papers at the grocery and bakery on the two or three streets around me. People in my neighborhood came to visit, and some were name artists, like Brassaï, who lived next door. Now, fifty years later, the photographs are on a gallery wall and they’re called “vintages”—valuable things—and I feel very odd about that.

Q: Can you tell me about some of the other works on view?

A: Blum & Poe asked that the exhibition span from my early works in 1953 to what I’ve done in the last ten years. In the time in between, I have been inventing other ways of sharing images and sound in cinema, and I went from being an old filmmaker to a young visual artist. I especially love the triptych, a form of art used in sixteenth-century Flemish paintings. I try to bring together three images at the same time. In cinema, when someone goes out of frame, you don’t know where that person has gone. I always try to think about this when I see an image; my imagination is bigger than the screen. In my own triptychs, surrounding the central image, I like to be able to open side panels of what would have been off-screen.

I did something similar with a photo I took in Marseille in 1956. I was sent to do documentary images of a Le Corbusier building for a magazine, and I went to the terrace and took a snapshot. Every snapshot questions who these people are who happen to be there at that time: Did they know each other? Did they come here together? This inspired a short screenplay I wrote and shot years later, Les gens de la terrasse (2007). I took people I met, who weren’t even actors, and my friend, a set designer, built a wall like the terrace in the photo. Then I asked the people to act out the screenplay as if they were two families having a meeting. Maybe in real life these people didn’t know each other, but I made the screenplay work. In the gallery, on the same wall, the still image is near the video, at the same size.

Q: What is the inspiration behind the maquettes, which are miniature re-creations of larger shacks you’ve built using film stock?

A: I’m very into gleaners, recycling things. And as you know, film screenings have changed so much that now they no longer need film prints—they have DCP. And people watch films on little computers and even on smartphones, which I feel sad about. I feel sorry for all these cans full of 35 mm prints, which inspired me to build shacks out of real film stock. I made one with The Creatures and one with Lions Love (. . . and Lies). It’s funny to think about these films becoming shacks and transparent walls. People can enter and look at the walls and recognize the images. I was careful to put parts of Catherine Deneuve and Michel Piccoli at a good height, so people could recognize them. We all love shacks; as kids, we would make them with fabric in the woods, so it’s like an old childish desire to make them out of leftover abandoned prints. The gallery presents the miniatures, which I made by reshooting the films in Super 8.

Q: You seem to be creating a dialogue with the past, reimagining your own installations and photographs. Is this about reclaiming memory for you?

A: My point is not to remember but to revive the past, to make it now. My favorite landscape is the seaside, which I captured in a piece that mixes photography, film, and sand [Bord de mer]. I try to reinvent the photos I’ve taken, turn them into triptychs. The gallery also has three self-portraits: one from when I was twenty, one from when I was forty, and one from when I was eighty. It’s like me saying I’m still here. They show my long life as an artist.

I was mostly doing photography in my first life, then mostly making films in my second life, and now I’m mostly making installations—though I just completed a documentary with the artist JR, so I haven’t completely left filmmaking. An audience in a theater is different from the audience coming into a museum or a gallery. I had a big, big exhibition in Paris at the Fondation Cartier, and I also had one where I was born in a neighborhood in Brussels called Ixelles. I’m very happy that people want to show my stuff. It’s an extension of my sides, my arms, my body.

Q: How is your non-film visual art informed by your fifty-year career as a filmmaker?

A: I like to reconcile silver prints with digital, the past with the present. Sometimes I make my work with 35 mm negatives and video, mixing black-and-white and color, still images and movement. At the end of my life, I don’t want to say cinema is against video. I want to use all of these things and play with them and keep my wish to touch people. Not to make them cry, but to touch their sensibility. I’m putting together elements that touch your memory of your own life. I want people to get back to themselves; I don’t want to impose anything.

Q: How do you feel looking back on those photographs from your courtyard?

A: I feel old; I’ve learned a lot, suffered a lot, enjoyed a lot. But I think I’m blessed in the last part of my life to get so much understanding and so much love for my work. I think I’m spoiled, in a way, because I could just be home waiting for my children to visit me and watching TV and sleeping half the time. I’m almost eighty-nine, and I have an incredible, exciting life, so I feel very lucky. I’m most touched when I meet people in the streets who say, “Thank you, you gave me a lot of happiness.” More than when they say “Bravo.” I think it’s more touching to get a “Thank you,” no?"
agnèsvarda  hillaryweston  2017  film  filmmaking  learning  photography  1953  1954  recycling  smartphones  super8  memory  history  jr 
may 2017 by robertogreco
Most of the World's Bread Clips Are Made by a Single Company - Atlas Obscura
"BREAD CLIPS! CONSIDER THEM FOR a moment, if you will. They’re those flat pieces of semi-hard plastic formed into a sort of barbed U-shape—you know the ones. They can be found keeping bread bags all over the world closed and safe from spoilage, smartly designed to be used and reused. They’re all around us, constantly providing an amazing service, and yet still, they’re taken for granted. And it turns out they’re almost exclusively all produced by a single, family-owned company.

Kwik Lok, based in Yakima, Washington, has been manufacturing these little tabs ever since their founder whittled the first one from a credit card. Without giving specific numbers, Kwik Lok says that they sell an almost unimaginable number each year. “It’s in the billions,” says Leigh Anne Whathen, a sales coordinator for the company, who says she personally prefers plastic clips to their natural enemy, the twist tie, because they last longer.

Floyd Paxton, Kwik Lok’s founder, was a second-generation manufacturing engineer who began his career working alongside his father, Hale, producing nail machines during World War II. Prior to the post-war plastics boom, both Paxton and his father produced, among other things, the nails used to close wooden boxes of fruit. In other words, package sealing was in Paxton’s blood.

According to the Kwik Lok website, the idea for the bread clip came to Paxton during a flight in 1952. As the story goes, while he was on the plane, Paxton was eating a package of complimentary nuts, and he realized he didn’t have a way to close them if he wanted to save some for later. As a solution, he took out a pen knife and hand-carved the first bread clip out of a credit card (in some tellings, it was an expired credit card).

From this humble beginning, the bread clip as we know it was born. As the use of polyethylene bags to package fruit and other foods rapidly increased, Paxton realized that he’d invented a cheap, reusable solution to sealing open-ended bags. His simple invention required minimal dexterity to operate and did not require stressing the piece, allowing it to rival twist-ties and sticker tags.

Paxton established the Kwik Lok Corporation in 1954 in California, and quickly set out to popularize the tabs (now known officially as Kwik Lok Closures) by using them to close bags of apples. The company eventually moved to Washington state, where their headquarters are still located.

Kwik Lok continued to grow over the decades as did demand for their little clips, which became popularly known as “bread clips” or “bread tabs.” Paxton eventually began developing new packaging machinery, including ones to manufacture Kwik Lok Closures, and one to put them on the bags automatically, which Whathen says they still sell to bakeries.

According to Whathen, Kwik Lok secured a patent on their little innovation in the early days of the company, and to this day, Kwik Lok remains one of the only manufacturers of bread clips in the world. Whathen says that the only other firm she’s aware of is a European competitor called Schutte. Kwik Lok also has the distinction of still being owned by Paxton’s descendants. Floyd’s son, Jerre, ran the company until his death in 2015, and today it is owned by two of Jerre’s daughters. “We’re still going strong,” says Whathen.

Kwik Lok operates two factories in the U.S., plus manufacturing plants in Canada, Australia, Japan, and Ireland. Far from the hand-crafted clip that Paxton made on that airplane, the company now offers just about every variation of the closure one might want. As for Floyd Paxton himself, he died in 1975, spending much of the last years of his life promoting his strict conservative politics as a member of the John Birch Society, including mounting four unsuccessful congressional campaigns. But his politics aside, Paxton’s invention is as widespread as it has ever been, finding its way into the lives of nearly every strata of society, everywhere on the globe."
breadclips  2017  bagclips  kwiklok  history  classideas  floydpaxton  manufacturing  1952  1954  breadtabs  leighannewhathen 
may 2017 by robertogreco
RT Samsung WB50F Smart Digital Camera - White + 2 Batter…
Camera  5181  1954  Photography  from twitter
january 2016 by mvlprovider
The Marshall Islands, once a U.S. nuclear test site, face oblivion again | The Washington Post
"'For four bullets into a tree in Iraq, they could fix this place.'"
"In 1954, the 'Castle Bravo' test... detonated with 1,000 times the force of the Hiroshima explosion. It hurled into the sky a massive plume of pulverized coral that drifted eastward and fell like ashy snowflakes on the people of Rongelap and Utirik atolls. Several days after Bravo, after children had eaten the ash, ..."
"In 2001, an independent nuclear-claims tribunal awarded the RMI $2.3 billion in health and property damages, but there was no mechanism to force the United States to pay it."
"Half the residents of Ebeye are under 20 years old, and a third are unemployed. The island has been called 'the slum of the Pacific.'"
"DeBrum then railed against nations that are modernizing their arsenals, a trend that he and other nations say is a violation of the grand bargain of the treaty... The United States is extending the life of its warheads, shrinking but updating its weapons infrastructure, and planning to construct a new fleet of submarines with nuclear-armed missiles.

"The price tag on this modernization plan? One trillion dollars over the next 30 years... Even though the United States has reduced its stockpile by 86 percent from its Cold War high, this reinvestment in nuclear arms doesn’t sit well with a poor island nation that has actually felt what nuclear war would be like."
1962  1960s  dan_zak  marshall_islands  washingtonpost  island  bomb  nuclear  explosion  crime  1940s  1950s  2015  2010s  america  hypocrisy  death  health  1946  1954  castle_bravo  weapon  atomic_bomb  tony_debrum  jack_niedenthal  bob_hope  bikini_atoll  territory  colonialism  war  resettlement  damage  government  cancer  diabetes  radiation  fallout  military  lawsuit  treaty  nonproliferation  climate_change  global_warming 
november 2015 by cluebucket

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